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Year Book 85 



1985-1986 



Carnegie Institution 



OF WASHINGTON 



Cover: Fluorescence photomicrograph of a baby hamster kidney 
cell in culture, obtained by Richard E. Pagano of the Department 
of Embryology in Baltimore. Treatment with a fluorescent lipid 
labels various intracellular components, including the nuclear en- 
velope (the large shape near the center), the endoplasmic reticu- 
lum (the lacelike pattern best seen at the cell's lower right), and 
the mitochondria (less-focused shapes, seen in the region outside 
the nucleus). The vertical dimension shown is approximately 20 
microns. A second cell is seen at lower right. Pagano and his col- 
leagues employ fluorescent techniques for studying membrane 
traffic in animal cells. 



Carnegie 
Institution 

OF WASHINGTON 




Year Book 85 



The Presidents Report 



1985-1986 



Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 3-16716 

International Standard Book Number 0-87279-660-4 

Composition by Harper Graphics, Inc., Waldorf, Maryland 

Printing by Port City Press, Baltimore, Maryland 

December 1986 



Contents 



President and Trustees v 

President's Commentary 1 

The Year in Review 7 

The Biological Sciences 11 

Stable Isotope Analysis in Plants: A Collaborative Venture 12 

Plant Adaptation: Measuring Environmental Variables 15 

Photosynthesis: A Mathematical Approach 16 

Application of Control Theory 17 

Photoinhibition 18 

Recovery from Photoinhibition: Comparing Sun and Shade Plants 19 

Fluorescence Monitoring of Photoinhibition 20 

Architecture of the Photosynthetic Apparatus 21 

Nutrient Stress and Coping Mechanisms in Cells 21 

High Salt in Mangroves 21 

Sulfate Deprivation 21 

Molecular Membrane Traffic in Cells 22 

Transmembrane Lipid Asymmetry 22 

Protein Traffic Through the Golgi 24 

Chromosomes 25 

Manipulating Large Molecules of DNA: Pulsed Electrophoresis 25 

Exploring Chromosome Structure and Function 27 

The Changeable Genome 29 

Maize Transposable Elements 29 

Genome Evolution 31 

Gene Function: Studies at the Department of Embryology 32 

Interactions of Viruses with the Animal Cell Genetic Apparatus 32 

The Molecular Characterization of Geminiviruses 33 

Regulation of Chorion Genes 34 

The Dual 5SRNA Gene System in Xenopus 37 

Genetic Analysis of Cell Morphology 38 

Plant Development and the Effect of Light 40 

Phytochrome and Development 40 

Phytochrome and Gravity 41 

Chloroplast Transcription 42 

The Phycobilisome Genes 42 

Algae as Model Systems 44 

The Human Embryo Collection 44 

The Physical Sciences 45 

Very Distant Galaxies: Looking at the Earlier Universe 46 

Identifying the Radio Sources Optically 47 

How Old Are the Faint Radio Galaxies? 49 

The Clustering and Grouping of Galaxies 49 

Clusters of Galaxies 50 

Galaxies in Compact Groups 51 

The Bootes Void Confirmed 53 

A Large-Scale Motion of Galaxies 56 



Measuring Mass, Distance, and the Expansion of the Universe 57 

Supernovae as Distance Indicators 59 

New Studies of Cepheids 59 

An Elliptical Galaxy and Its Companions 60 

The Process of Star Formation 60 

Observing Young Stellar Objects 61 

Observations of Herbig-Haro Objects 62 

The Existence of Dark Stars 63 

Understanding Our Galaxy and Its Neighbors 65 

The Formation of Our Galaxy 65 

An Intensive Look at the Center of Spiral Galaxy M33 66 

Interstellar Dust in M31 68 

Star Formation Rates as a Clue to Galaxy Evolution 69 

The Eight-Meter Telescope Project 70 

Solar and Stellar Observations at Mount Wilson 71 

The Accumulation of the Planets 72 

Mineralogy at High Pressure 73 

Experimental Results 74 

Using Synchrotron Radiation with the Diamond Cell 75 

Plate Subduction: Seismological Studies 76 

Slab Penetration beneath Peru 77 

Studying Slabs at Great Depths 79 

The Great Chilean and Sumbayan Earthquakes 80 

Sediment Subduction in Volcanic Arcs: Answers from 10 Be 81 

Geochemical Investigations of the Inner Earth 85 

The Mantle beneath the Oceans 85 

The Crust-Mantle Transition 87 

Evolution of the Continents 88 

Experimental Studies on Crust and Mantle Processes 89 

Formation of Layered Intrusion and Flood Basalts 90 

Understanding Regional Metamorphism 93 

Kinetic Modeling of Fundamental Geological Processes 94 

Structure and Property in Silicate Melts: Solubility Mechanisms 95 

The Inverted Telescope Idea 100 

Biogeochemistry 102 

Paleodiets from Stable Isotope Studies 102 

The Delaware Estuary Project 103 

Sedimentary Organic Matter 104 

Professional Activities 107 

Losses, Gains, Honors 110 

Bibliography of Published Work and Work Accepted for Publication 117 

Administrative Documents 143 

Staff Lists 145 

Report of the Executive Committee 153 

Abstract of Minutes of the Eighty-Ninth Meeting of the Board of Trustees . . . 155 

Financial Statements 157 

Articles of Incorporation 175 

By-Laws of the Institution 179 

Index 185 



IV 



J 



President and Trustees 



PRESIDENT 
James D. Ebert 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
Richard E. Heckert 1 
Chairman 

Robert C. Seamans, Jr. 2 
Vice-Chairman 

William T. Golden 
Secretary 

Philip H. Abelson 
Lewis M. Branscomb 
William T. Coleman, Jr. 
Edward E. David, Jr. 
John Diebold 
Gerald M. Edelman 
Sandra M. Faber 
Robert G. Goelet 
William C. Greenough 
Caryl P. Haskins 
William R. Hewlett 3 
George F. Jewett, Jr. 
Antonia Ax:son Johnson 
William F. Kieschnick 
Gerald D. Laubach 
John D. Macomber 
Robert M. Pennoyer 
Richard S. Perkins 
Charles H. Townes 
Thomas N. Urban 4 
Sidney J. Weinberg, Jr. 
Gunnar Wessman 
Trustees 

Crawford H. Greene wait 
William McChesney Martin, Jr. 
Garrison Norton 
Frank Stanton 

Trustees Emeriti 

^ice-Chairman to May 9, 1986 
2 Elected Vice-Chairman May 9, 1986 
3 Chairman to May 9, 1986 
4 Elected May 9, 1986 



v 



Farmer Presidents and Trustees 



PRESIDENTS 
Daniel Coit Gilman, 1902-1904 
Robert Simpson Woodward, 

1904-1920 
John Campbell Merriam, 

1921-1938 
Vannevar Bush, 1939-1955 
Caryl P. Haskins, 1956-1971 
Philip H. Abelson, 

1971-1978 

TRUSTEES 
Alexander Agassiz, 1904-1905 
Robert O. Anderson, 1976-1983 
Lord Ashby of Brandon, 1967-1974 
J. Paul Austin, 1976-1978 
George J. Baldwin, 1925-1927 
Thomas Barbour, 1934-1946 
James F. Bell, 1935-1961 
John S. Billings, 1902-1913 
Robert Woods Bliss, 1936-1962 
Amory H. Bradford, 1959-1972 
Lindsay Bradford, 1940-1958 
OmarN. Bradley, 1948-1969 
Robert S. Brookings, 1910-1929 
Vannevar Bush, 1958-1971 
John L. Cadwalader, 1903-1914 
William W. Campbell, 1929-1938 
JohnJ. Carty, 1916-1932 
Whitefoord R. Cole, 1925-1934 
John T. Connor, 1975-1980 
Frederic A. Delano, 1927-1949 
Cleveland H. Dodge, 1903-1923 
William E. Dodge, 1902-1903 
Charles P. Fenner, 1914-1924 
Michael Ference, Jr., 1968-1980 
Homer L. Ferguson, 1927-1952 
Simon Flexner, 1910-1914 
W. Cameron Forbes, 1920-1955 
James Forrestal, 1948-1949 
William N. Frew, 1902-1915 
Lyman J. Gage, 1902-1912 
Walter S. Gifford, 1931-1966 



Carl J. Gilbert, 1962-1983 
Cass Gilbert, 1924-1934 
Frederick H. Gillett, 1924-1935 
Daniel C. Gilman, 1902-1908 
HannaH. Gray, 1974-1978 
Patrick E. Haggerty, 1974-1975 
John Hay, 1902-1905 
Barklie McKee Henry, 1949-1966 
Myron T. Herrick, 1915-1929 
AbramS. Hewitt, 1902-1903 
Henry L. Higginson, 1902-1919 
Ethan A. Hitchcock, 1902-1909 
Henry Hitchcock, 1902 
Herbert Hoover, 1920-1949 
William Wirt Howe, 1903-1909 
Charles L. Hutchinson, 1902-1904 
Walter A. Jessup, 1938-1944 
Frank B. Jewett, 1933-1949 
Samuel P. Langley, 1904-1906 
ErnestO. Lawrence, 1944-1958 
Charles A. Lindbergh, 1934-1939 
William Lindsay, 1902-1909 
Henry Cabot Lodge, 1914-1924 
Alfred L. Loomis, 1934-1973 
Robert A. Lovett, 1948-1971 
Seth Low, 1902-1916 
Wayne MacVeagh, 1902-1907 
Keith S. McHugh, 1950-1974 
Andrew W. Mellon, 1924-1937 
John Campbell Merriam, 

1921-1938 
Margaret Carnegie Miller, 

1955-1967 
Roswell Miller, 1933-1955 
Darius O. Mills, 1902-1909 
S. Weir Mitchell, 1902-1914 
Andrew J. Montague, 1907-1935 
Henry S. Morgan, 1936-1978 
William W. Morrow, 1902-1929 
Seeley G. Mudd, 1940-1968 
Franklin D. Murphy, 1978-1985 
William I. Myers, 1948-1976 



William Church Osborn, 1927-1934 
Walter H. Page, 1971-1979 
James Parmelee, 1917-1931 
Wm. Barclay Parsons, 1907-1932 
Stewart Paton, 1916-1942 
George W. Pepper, 1914-1919 
JohnJ. Pershing, 1930-1943 
Henning W. Prentis, Jr. , 

1942-1959 
Henry S. Pritchett, 1906-1936 
Gordon S. Rentschler, 1946-1948 
David Rockefeller, 1952-1956 
Elihu Root, 1902-1937 
Elihu Root, Jr., 1937-1967 
Julius Rosenwald, 1929-1931 
William M. Roth, 1968-1979 
William W. Rubey, 1962-1974 
Martin A. Ryerson, 1908-1928 
Henry R. Shepley, 1937-1962 
Theobald Smith, 1914-1934 
John C. Spooner, 1902-1907 
William Benson Storey, 1924-1939 
Richard P. Strong, 1934-1948 
Charles P. Taft, 1936-1975 
William H. Taft, 1906-1915 
William S. Thayer, 1929-1932 
JuanT. Trippe, 1944-1981 
James W. Wadsworth, 1932-1952 
Charles D. Walcott, 1902-1927 
Frederic C. Walcott, 1931-1948 
Henry P. Walcott, 1910-1924 
Lewis H. Weed, 1935-1952 
William H. Welch, 1906-1934 
Andrew D. White, 1902-1916 
Edward D. White, 1902-1903 
Henry White, 1913-1927 
James N. White, 1956-1979 
George W. Wickersham, 1909-1936 
Robert E. Wilson, 1953-1964 
Robert S. Woodward, 1905-1924 
Carroll D. Wright, 1902-1908 



Under the original charter, from the date of organization until April 28, 
1904, the following were ex officio members of the Board of Trustees: the 
President of the United States, the President of the Senate, the Speaker of 
the House of Representatives, the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 
and the President of the National Academy of Sciences. 



VI 



Administration and Directors 



PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT 
1530 P Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005 

James D. Ebert President 

Margaret L. A. Mac Vicar Vice President 

DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY 

115 West University Parkway, Baltimore, Maryland 21210 

Donald D. Brown Director 

DEPARTMENT OF PLANT BIOLOGY 

290 Panama Street, Stanford, California 91+305 

Winslow R. Briggs Director 

GEOPHYSICAL LABORATORY 

2801 Upton Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008 

Hatten S. Yoder, Jr. Director (to June 30, 1986) 

Charles T. Prewitt Director (from July 1, 1986) 

MOUNT WILSON AND LAS CAMPANAS OBSERVATORIES 

813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, California 91101 

George W. Preston Director (to June 30, 1986) 

Ray J. Weymann Director (from July 1, 1986) 

DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 
52U1 Broad Branch Road, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20015 

George W. Wetherill Director 

OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION 

1530 P Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005 

John C. Lawrence Controller 

Ray Bowers Publications Officer; Editor 

Susan Y. Vasquez Assistant to the President 

Joseph M. S. Haraburda Accounting Manager 

Patricia Parratt Associate Editor 

Greg Silsbee Grants and Contracts Administrator 

Cady Canapp Administrator for Personnel and 

Employee Benefits 



Marshall Hornblower Counsel 

STAFF MEMBER IN SPECIAL SUBJECT AREA 

Roy J. Britten 
DISTINGUISHED SERVICE MEMBER IN SPECIAL SUBJECT AREA 

Barbara McClintock 

vii 



Carnegie Institution of Washington adheres in all 
phases of its operations, including employment and educa- 
tional programs, to a policy barring discrimination on the 
basis of race, religion, color, national or ethnic origin, age, 
sex, or physical handicap. In its educational programs it 
admits qualified students as fellows without regard to 
race, religion, color, national or ethnic origin, age, sex, 
or physical handicap to all the rights, privileges, programs, 
and activities generally accorded or made available to 
fellows at the Institution. It does not discriminate on the 
basis of race, religion, color, national or ethnic origin, age, 
sex, or physical handicap in administration of its educational 
policies, admissions policies, fellowship programs, and 
other Institution-administered programs. 



i 



r^ 



President's Commentary 




Comet Halley, photographed on 16 March 1986 with the du Pont telescope at 
Las Campanas by Alan Dressier and Rogier Windhorst. The photo was reproduced 
from a 20" x 20" glass plate, and covers a field more than one degree across. The 
relatively short exposure time (10 minutes) contributed to the excellent resolution, 
seen in the highly detailed image of the comet's tail of gas and dust. 



.... You must have seen 
The ships that rose to greet you. 
Next time there will be more. 
They'll even mount your haggard head 
And ride you into Neptune's night! 
Yes, we still are bold. . . . 

George W. Wetherill 

La Serena, Chile 

April 1986* 

The return of Comet Halley from its 75-year odyssey to the 
outer reaches of the solar system gave special flavor to the 
year in science. That practicing scientists of all disciplines 
seemed to share the public's general fascination with the comet's 
return, suggested that the curiosity and the awe toward Nature 
which impel young people toward scientific careers are not 
dulled in lifetimes of specialized research. 

The return of the comet stirred appealing memories for the 
Carnegie Institution. Seventy-five years ago, in 1910, the comet 
was observed at the recently built 60-inch telescope at Mount 
Wilson; it was the year of Andrew Carnegie's visit to Mount 
Wilson — an event soon followed by Mr. Carnegie's second major 
endowment to the Institution enabling the building of the now- 
historic 100-inch telescope. Andrew Carnegie was born 75 years 
before his California trip — in 1835, the year of Comet Halley's 
previous visit. 

Another milestone event of this report year was an 
unfortunate one. The loss of Space Shuttle Challenger and its 
crew produced severe immediate damage to humankind's 
exploration of space and led to doubts among some scientists 
and laypersons as to the costs of such activities. The stand-down 
of Shuttle launches following the disaster meant delays in many 
scientific investigations; the most obvious setback was an apparent 



*WetheriH's full verse is printed on page 115. 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

two-year delay in the orbiting of the Edwin P. Hubble Space 
Telescope, whose scheduled launching in August 1986 had been 
long anticipated by astronomers of Carnegie and other institutions. 

Countless other issues confronted makers of science policy. 
Some such questions raised implications for the Institution's 
scientific work. Whether biologists should embark on the vast 
work of sequencing the human genome in its entirety, or whether 
a better immediate goal is a more generalized mapping, for 
example, stirred vigorous debate among molecular biologists. 
Carnegie scientists have expressed strong and open concerns on 
such matters as our nation's educational decline, the implications 
of nuclear weaponry for the survival of life on our planet, ill- 
informed challenges to recombinant DNA research, the mandated 
teaching of pseudo-science in the public schools of several of our 
states, and alternative approaches for our future exploration of 
space. Properly, we are deeply troubled by the gathering plague 
of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. My own views on 
most of these issues are widely known; what is less-often 
emphasized is that I encourage our directors and staff scientists 
to contribute their informed perspectives to these debates in 
appropriate forums. We are part of a magnificent civilization, 
and our obligations to participate in its workings should not be 
limited to our quest for society's good will and support. 

Our Institution continues in robust health. The Annual 
Meeting of our trustees on May 9, 1986, was a particularly 
significant one, marked by the presence of all 24 trustees as well 
as two trustees emeriti. After reviewing alternative proposals 
for the future consolidation of the Geophysical Laboratory and 
Department of Terrestrial Magnetism (DTM), the Board voted 
authorization to commission an architectural schematic design 
for new construction and renovation of existing buildings at the 
campus of DTM in northwestern Washington. The decision 
resolved uncertainties as to our future in the earth sciences and 
established a firm course for the future. 

Strong affirmations by the trustees also allowed us to move 
toward early agreement with two distinguished universities for 
partnership in building and operating the proposed 8-meter 
telescope in Chile. The signing of a formal agreement with the 
Johns Hopkins University and the University of Arizona in 
October 1986 was a satisfying event, as the partnership will 
open the way for our continued leadership in astronomy for 
decades ahead. The costs and observing time will be shared as 
follows: Carnegie 50%, Hopkins 25%, Arizona 25%. 



PRESIDENT'S COMMENTARY 

In several ways, the arrangement seems a natural one. Our 
institution contributes the superb observing site at Las Campanas 
and our established infrastructure for operating a modern 
observatory there. Our past success in developing Mount Wilson, 
Palomar, and Las Campanas must surely have encouraged our 
new partners to join us. 

Meanwhile, Johns Hopkins brings its strong experience in 
astrophysical research from space vehicles. The Hopkins campus 
houses the Space Telescope Science Institute, where operational 
planning and data-processing for the Hubble Space Telescope 
will be centered. Our scientists of the Department of Embryology 
have worked closely with Hopkins people for many decades, 
with superb results. 

The University of Arizona contributes its long experience in 
building and operating major telescopes in remote areas. Arizona 
also brings its promising new technology for manufacturing 
large mirrors, and its early contribution to the partnership will 
be the provision of the 8-meter reflecting mirror. The mirror 
will be spin-cast by J. Roger Angel and his colleagues in Tucson 
from molten glass, which assumes a concave shape while being 
rotated in an oven and cooled gradually. 

Much of the credit for the telescope agreement belongs to 
George W. Preston, director of our Observatories until June 30, 
1986, who recognized the opportunity and worked hard to 
realize it. Preston's successor as director, Ray J. Weymann, 
comes to us from the University of Arizona, where he took a 
leading role in the building of the multi-mirror telescope on 
Mount Hopkins. 

Our sense of forward motion in the physical sciences is 
further reinforced by the appointment of Charles T. Prewitt as 
director of the Geophysical Laboratory, effective July 1, 1986. 
He will work with DTM director George Wetherill during the 
critical next few years, shaping our transition to a new posture 
in the earth sciences. I look forward enthusiastically to the 
linking of the distinctive and very great strengths of these two 
departments. Our future organization will strongly favor the 
kinds of interdisciplinary approaches that seem required by the 
most crucial questions in the earth and planetary sciences. 

With the meeting of the trustees in May, William Hewlett 
stepped down after six years of service as Chairman of our 
Board. The depth of my feelings toward this man are not easily 
expressed. His tenure as chairman to a great extent coincided 
with my own presidency, and the progress that the Institution 



6 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

has achieved in these years — if, as I deeply hope, future historians 
will look upon these years positively — are heavily attributable to 
the strong guidance and support characterizing Bill's relation 
with me. Indeed, I would wish to the future chairmen and 
presidents of the Institution that they be favored by so effective 
a bond. The full measure of the Institution's debt to Bill Hewlett 
cannot be described. 

I am of course heartened that Bill will remain as trustee. I 
am further heartened by the appointments of Richard Heckert 
as chairman and Robert Seamans as vice-chairman. The past 
commitment and leadership of these individuals in the affairs of 
the Institution argues that our future is in good hands. 

James D. Ebert 
December 15, 1986 



The Year in Review 




Staff of the Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observatories. Front row (left to right): Richard 
Black, Christopher Price, Joan Gantz, Maria Anderson, Wendy Freedman, Robert Georgen, 
Dee Sahlin. Middle row: Stephen Shectman, Jill Bechtold, Laura Woodard, Eric Persson, Ken 
Clardy, Jeannie Todd, Estuardo Vasquez, Harvey Crist. Back: Michael Gregg, Rogier Windhorst, 
Paul Schechter, Stephen Knapp, Jerome Kristian, Robert Jedrzejewski, John Jacobs, Frank 
Perez, William Quails, Belva Campbell, John Caldwell, John Adkins, Phil Friswold, Horace 
Babcock. 



The Year in Review 



In research work, you cannot plan to make discoveries, 
but you can plan work which would probably lead to 
discoveries. 

Irving Langmuir 

Research Laboratory Bulletin 

General Electric Co., Fall 1956 

The scientific method, as far as it is a method, is 
nothing more than doing one's damnedest with one's 
mind, no holds barred. 

Percy W. Bridgman 

"The Prospect for Intelligence" 

The Yale Review, 1945 

Most of the time the process of science is cumulative. New 
knowledge and understanding are continuously pyramided; old 
interpretations are constantly questioned and by degrees reshaped. 

Occasionally some revolutionary discovery or insight intrudes, 
breaking the graduated process and producing a fresh intellectual 
beginning. Our century has seen three such intrusions: the 
unravelling of the genetic code, the discovery that the Universe is 
expanding, and the coming together of the plate tectonics synthesis. 
These were landmark events in recent intellectual history — 
milestones that continue to provide the frames for today's leading 
work in biology, astronomy, and the earth sciences, respectively. 
But it is also true that in each case, most of the necessary building 
blocks of understanding had been all along present — products of 
the cumulative nature of science. The final pieces came into place 
upon the advent of x-ray crystallography, the 100-inch telescope, 
and radioisotope dating. 

The bringing of these new tools to bear on the critical remaining 
gaps in knowledge was the achievement of individuals having the 
knowledge, expertise, and imagination to grasp the moment. Such 
moments are surely rare, but the opportunities for contributions 
only a little less sweeping seem there for the recognizing. Investi- 
gators remain driven to seek out such opportunities, impelled by a 



9 



10 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

variety of motives ranging from intellectual curiosity to the human 
competitive urge — to lead through superior and influential work. 

Of the many elements going into the attainment of leadership in 
discovery, perhaps most crucial is the choosing of the research 
direction — in deciding where and how to devote one's energies. For 
the individual, the stakes can be high: a poor choice means loss of 
valuable time and other resources, and may lead to the stagnation 
of a promising career. 

There are, after all, unlimited numbers of possible experiments 
in molecular genetics, countless galaxies and other celestial objects 
awaiting observation, multitudes of geological sites and materials 
for possible investigation. The individual approaching a decision 
must bring a mastery of existing knowledge, theory, and technique, 
upon which is applied his or her creativity and imagination — i.e., 
an ability to break intelligently from established ways of thought. 
Recognizing some critical gap in knowledge whose solution will 
confirm or refute a hypothesis, the investigator may see that 
certain research tools — in equipment, technique, or theory — can be 
applied to resolve that gap. From such thinking may emerge what 
is truly a right question, and the investigator's best approach to it. 

An important corollary is the investigator's alertness to unforeseen 
opportunities as an investigation proceeds, perhaps to bend away 
from the original blueprint. Serendipitous discoveries populate the 
history of science, and the flexibility to pursue them is really an 
extension of the mind-processes that set in motion the original 
investigation. Similarly, since frontier studies entail high risk, 
there must be willingness to change directions should early results 
prove unpromising. 

An important part of the ideology of the Carnegie Institution is 
the belief that the choice of research direction is best left to the 
individual — the conviction that preserving the investigator's freedom 
and flexibility best assures that worthwhile things will happen. The 
Institution therefore sets only the general realms of activity. This 
is done indirectly, primarily through the Institution's choice of staff 
and fellows, and through its decisions for investing in certain 
equipment or facilities. 

At each of its five research centers, the Institution assembles 
investigators with varied but interrelating interests, backgrounds, 
and expertise. As members of different subdisciplines interact 
informally and begin to think about common questions from different 
perspectives, loose and changing patterns of collaboration tend to 
emerge. Thus at Carnegie, the individual's choice of research 
direction characteristically calls for an ability to link his or her own 
intellectual growth with that of his or her co-workers, to recognize 
and exploit opportunities for interdisciplinary focus on questions. 

That intellectual adventures of these kinds are taking place 
should be evident in the discussions of research that follow. The 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 11 

reader should be able to glimpse the larger purpose in each venture — 
how results might bear on one or more critical unknowns in some 
larger question, or how the venture promises significance beyond 
the limited dimension of the immediate data. The Institution's 
inclination to proceed with high-risk enterprises in unexplored 
directions should be recognizable. Every investigation is both 
product of past choices of direction and prologue to fresh ones.* 



The Biological Sciences 



Running unmistakably through the work of the biologists of the 
Carnegie Institution can be detected a continuing fascination 
with the way things work. This search to understand function runs 
through the research of ecologists, cell biologists, and practitioners 
of the newest discipline — molecular biology, which until recently 
was largely a science of description and structural characterization. 

To a biologist interested in broad function, the question of what 
system to study in detail is extremely critical. How to plan and 
structure one's research is arguably more critical to biologists than 
it is to scientists in other fields, for getting to know a living 
organism, or part of an organism, on which experimentation is to 
be done is a long and complex process. One must, for example, 
develop a means of keeping the organism, tissue, or cell alive while 
doing experiments — and not to violate its integrity in a critical way 
in the process. This challenge is unique to the biological sciences. 

Not only is it important to find a system that can withstand 
manipulation, it is equally important to find a system offering 
answers of wide implication. There is a place in biology for the 
unique, the exceptional (indeed, mutations are a cornerstone of 
genetics), but one usually chooses a system because of what it may 
say about biological processes in general. When, for example, 
Samuel Ward at the Department of Embryology chooses to study 
the sperm of the worm, he does so not because he is particularly 
interested in the worm, but because he has found that its sperm 
cell is an ideal experimental system, one offering insight into 



*The essay has been written primarily for readers who are not specialists in 
the disciplines being discussed; persons interested in scholarly reports are 
referred to the materials listed in the bibliography (see pages 117-142). The 
text has been developed from materials provided by the directors and 
scientists in July 1986. 



12 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

general developmental processes. Likewise, when Department of 
Plant Biology staff member Christopher Field studies the physio- 
logical ecology of pepper plants, he does so not because pepper 
plants are particularly fascinating, but because so many different 
species of pepper plants exist in such a wide range of environments, 
allowing him to assess adaptations to varying environmental 
influences and to develop conclusions with broad applicability. 

We here begin at the ecological level, and work, with occasional 
deviations, across a spectrum — first the whole organism, then the 
cells and cell membranes, then the chromosomes, and finally those 
tiny segments of chromosomes that are the genes. We will meet 
scientists as broad-ranging as physiological ecologist Joseph Berry, 
whose group is devising a complex mathematical approach to the 
study of photosynthesis while working at the same time to isolate a 
small molecule that regulates an important plant enzyme, and as 
focused as Donald Brown, who has spent nearly twenty years on 
understanding in detail the workings of two genes in the frog-like 
Xenopus. 

We will see increased interactions across subdisciplinary 
boundaries. At the Department of Embryology, for example, a 
joint project between cell biologist Martin Snider and molecular 
biologist Steven McKnight has produced the first description of a 
mammalian cell mutant that is defective in the transport of protein. 
This research, in combination with that of lipid biologist Richard 
Pagano, is yielding some fascinating insights into membrane traffic 
in living cells. Similarly, at the Department of Plant Biology, 
molecular geneticists, photomorphologists, and physiological ecologists 
explore many of the same questions. This is especially evident this 
year in a concentration of study — at several levels — on the pigment- 
protein phytochrome. There has also recently begun a remarkable 
collaboration between plant physiologists of the Department and 
biogeochemists from the Institution's Geophysical Laboratory. The 
project, which is designed to study oxygen isotope use in plant 
processes, exploits the strengths of both disciplines: the plant 
biologists provide carefully prepared plant tissues and enzymes, 
and the geochemists contribute their experience with stable isotope 
phenomena. 

Stable Isotope Analysis in Plants: A Collaborative Venture 

The collaborative effort begun last year by physiological ecologists 
Joseph Berry and Robert Guy at the Department of Plant Biology 
and biogeochemists Marilyn Fogel (Estep) and Thomas Hoering 
of the Geophysical Laboratory bridges the disciplines of biology and 
geology and brings in the perspectives and precision tools of the 
geochemist. The work involves experiments on the capacity of 
certain plant enzymes to discriminate between, or fractionate, 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 13 

stable isotopes of oxygen in biological reactions of photosynthesis 
and respiration. In developing stable-isotope measurements as a 
tool in plant studies, the investigators are increasing understanding 
of biochemical mechanisms in plants and the evolution of the 
Earth's oxygen balance. 

Oxygen is one of the most abundant elements in the Earth. It 
occurs as two major isotopes, 16 and 18 0. During respiration (i.e., 
oxygen uptake, or breathing) in microbes and animals, 16 is more 
likely to be used than the heavier isotope by a factor of 1.018. In 
experiments in a closed vessel, this preferential use of 16 leads to 
an accumulation of 18 in the gaseous oxygen, eventually reaching a 
stable 18 0/ 16 value 1.018 times that of the original. (The 2 
becomes enriched in 18 by 18%o.) 

This example might be expected to represent what goes on in the 
Earth, where oxygen is produced by photosynthesis, most of it in 
seawater, and where most respiration takes place in the atmosphere. 
In experiments reported last year, the Carnegie investigators 
confirmed that photosynthesis produces essentially no fractionation 
in oxygen isotopes. Thus, isotope discrimination in respiration 
should result in an atmosphere enriched in 18 by 18%o over the 
concentration in the oceans. But things are not that simple: there 
are several different types of respiration, there is non-biological 2 
uptake, and because of water transport in the hydrologic cycle 
there are variations in the local isotopic composition of water used 
in photosynthesis. In actuality, the enrichment of 18 in the 
atmosphere over that in seawater (known as the Dole Effect) is 
+ 23.5%o, not +18%o. (See Fig. 1.) 

Seeking to understand the causes of the enrichment, the Carnegie 
investigators are examining the 18 0/ 16 discrimination occurring in 
other types of respiration — in photorespiration in plants, for 
example, which may consume as much as 40% of a plant's gross 
oxygen production in photosynthesis. Another mechanism of 
respiration occurs in plants by a pathway not inhibited by the 
metabolic poison cyanide. If photorespiration and the cyanide- 
resistant respiration take up 16 preferentially over 18 0, then they 
may at least partly explain the enhanced 18 of the atmosphere. 

During the report year, Berry, Guy, and Fogel did experiments 
on leaf cells and sampled the oxygen gas above the cultures. This 
gas was analyzed with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (located 
at NASA's Ames Laboratory, Moffett Field, California) that 
measures with a precision of 0.001%. They found that these 
mechanisms do indeed discriminate against 18 0: while normal 
microbial respiration discriminates 16-18%c, photorespiration 
discriminates about 22-23%o, and the cyanide-resistant respiration 
discriminates as much as 26-27%c. In vitro studies of enzymes 
involved (glycolate oxidase and RuBP oxygenase) showed commen- 
surate fractionation. 



THE DOLE EFFECT: 



Atmosphere 
6 18 = +23.5 



Photorespiration 




Atmospheric 
Reactions 




Gross 
Photosynthesis 




Fig. 1. The ratio of the heavy isotope of oxygen ( 18 0) to the light isotope ( 16 0) is 
1.0235 times greater in the Earth's atmosphere than it is in seawater. Joseph 
Berry and Robert Guy of the Department of Plant Biology, with Marilyn Fogel 
and Thomas Hoering of the Geophysical Laboratory, are investigating this 
phenomenon, called the "Dole Effect," in collaborative experiments aimed at 
determining the differential use, or fractionation, of oxygen isotopes in biological 
reactions. The drawing above shows the geochemical cycling of oxygen. Oxygen is 
produced from water during photosynthesis and is consumed in several major 
uptake reactions, such as photorespiration and dark respiration by plants 
and respiration by microbes and animals. Solid arrows represent the transfer of 
oxygen as 2 ; dotted arrows represent the transfer of oxygen as water. Enrichment 
of water as a consequence of transpiration (regulated water loss) by leaves is not 
shown, but also may contribute to the Dole Effect. 



It is not clear if the discrimination observed is universal under all 
conditions or if its extent could account for the Dole Effect. In 
future work, the group plans to develop procedures for measuring 
isotope fractionation during photorespiration among a variety of 
species as a function of environmental conditions. They also hope to 
study more-complex systems where more than one process of 2 
exchange is occurring. 

Although isotope-abundance measurements have been used for 
years by biogeochemists to help trace the organic record back 
through geologic time, they are now becoming a useful tool in 
biological laboratories. Previous studies of respiration in plants 
depended on the use of selective inhibitors, which in all probability 
interfered with normal metabolic processes. The techniques of 
isotope-fractionation measurement offer a direct and nondestructive 
method. 






THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 15 



Plant Adaptation: Measuring Environmental Variables 

Demonstrations that we understand enough about 
adaptation to begin predicting the patterns preserved 
by natural selection provide encouragement that we 
will soon be able to, at least in principle, "custom 
design" plants for particular habitats. 

Christopher Field 

July 1986 

A scientist wishes to separate component parts, to get rid of the 
nonessentials, to get at the true nature of a thing. The need to 
quantify, or measure, is at the core of this drive. Nowhere is this 
more difficult than in biology, especially at the ecological level. For 
all of life is a vast web, intimately connected to the changing 
physical environment. How does one separate interdependent 
processes? How, for example, does one go about assessing the 
significance of particular adaptive characteristics in real (and hence 
complex) environments? 

This is the question that physiological ecologist Christopher Field 
of the Department of Plant Biology and research associate Robin 
Chazdon have been working on during the report year. These two 
study how plants adapt to one of the most complex of environments — 
the tropical rain forest. They use as their model system the tropical 
genus Piper (the pepper plant), which inhabits a wide range of 
environments, from deep shade to full sun. In studying adaptation 
of Piper species, Field and Chazdon are attempting to quantify 
various resources in the tropical environment, especially that of 
light. 

This year, after experimenting with a variety of methods, they 
found that the best way to quantify the light environment is to do 
computer analyses of hemispherical, or "fisheye," photographs. (See 
Fig. 2.) This method enables them to estimate an annual pattern of 
light environment for a great many sites. Using the technique, they 
demonstrated that photosynthetic characteristics of plants in a 
particular location respond to slow changes in the light environment 
(over the course of months) but not fast changes (over weeks). 

Field has been attempting to plug his data into a mathematical 
model of photosynthetic carbon balance developed by himself, 
fellow staff member Joseph Berry, and colleagues. This model is 
proving useful in identifying the combinations of light environment 
and nutrient availability in which several Piper species should 
realize high carbon gain. The model has also enabled them to 
predict, on the same criterion (that of maximizing carbon gain), 
broad trends in leaf architecture with changing light availability. 



.% / I"/ % 













Fig. 2. In quantifying the light environment at the 
floor of the tropical rainforest, Christopher Field 
and Robin Chazdon of the Department of Plant 
Biology use computer analyses of hemispherical 
photographs of rainforest canopies, such as this one 
(upper panel), taken in a "gap" — an opening in a 
forest canopy caused by the fall of a large tree — in 
Veracruz, Mexico. (A digitized representation of the 
same photograph is in lower panel.) These horizon- 
to-horizon views contain the information necessary 
to describe the light environment of understory 
seedlings, which do not reach maturity unless a gap 
forms above them. 




Photosynthesis: A Mathematical Approach 



Joseph Berry has long been interested in quantitative aspects of 
photosynthesis. He and his colleagues have been working to draw 
together a sufficiently comprehensive understanding of photosynthesis 
in its biochemical and biophysical workings to explain the complex 
physiological responses seen with whole leaves. The problem they 
face is how to integrate segments of knowledge — to learn how the 
parts intermesh and interconnect. 

During the report year, in pursuit of this goal, Berry and 
colleagues concentrated on developing a numerical model explaining 
how the rate of a complex metabolic process in photosynthesis like 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 17 

carbon dioxide (C0 2 ) fixation is determined by the plant's capacity 
to function efficiently in any one of several sequential steps. (C0 2 
fixation is the last of a series of steps in photosynthesis whereby 
C0 2 is turned into carbohydrates and water.) Several years ago, 
with visiting investigator Graham Farquhar, Berry developed 
an early model based on a simplification. They reasoned that, in 
plants, the maximum rate of any metabolic process was determined 
by limiting "bottleneck" reactions. Though the model worked well 
for mathematical analyses of gross physiological responses of intact 
plants, its underlying assumptions oversimplified the biochemical 
systems. Any "bottlenecks" in metabolic pathways, they found, 
tend to occur within a framework of highly regulated reactions that 
keep the same balance in the flow of metabolites, regardless of the 
location of the bottleneck. 

This was demonstrated experimentally during the report year by 
Berry, former visiting investigator Tom Sharkey, and former fellow 
Jeffrey Seemann. (Both Sharkey and Seemann are now at the 
Desert Research Institute of the University of Nevada.) These 
three showed that the activity of Rubisco, a major photosynthetic 
enzyme that combines carbon dioxide with ribulose bisphosphate 
(RuBP), is regulated by feedback mechanisms so that the plant's 
capacity to consume RuBP is reduced whenever this capacity 
exceeds its capacity to manufacture RuBP. The inhibitor of Rubisco 
discovered in bean plants last year (Year Book 81*, p. 42) and 
identified this year by Berry and collaborators George Lorimer and 
John Pierce of E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., is part of one of 
those feedback mechanisms. 

This Rubisco-inhibiting substance is a close structural analog of a 
molecule formed as an intermediate in the normal reaction catalyzed 
by Rubisco. Because of this similarity, the inhibitor binds very 
tightly to the catalytic site, preventing the enzyme from acting 
upon its normal substrate, RuBP. When regulation is required (for 
example, in the dark), the concentration of this inhibitor goes up. 
When regulation is not required, that is, when photosynthesis is at 
its peak and all of the Rubisco is needed, the inhibitor disappears. 
The mechanism that regulates the concentration of the inhibitor 
thus serves to regulate Rubisco. Berry and his colleagues are 
currently at work investigating this and other regulatory 
mechanisms. 

Application of Control Theory. One pertinent question so far 
unanswered about such processes is: why should biochemical 
reactions like that of Rubisco need to be so carefully balanced? To 
approach this question, Berry needed a much more complete model 
of the complex biochemical reactions than the one he had. Fortu- 
nately, Ian Woodrow had just arrived from the Australian National 
University, bringing with him a strong interest in the regulation of 
metabolic pathways. He had just learned a mathematical approach 



18 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

developed several years earlier by biochemists working in England. 
This approach, called control theory, had never before been applied 
to a process as complex as photosynthesis, but Woodrow argued 
that the mathematical simplifications offered by the theory could be 
used to simulate the regulatory processes involved in photosynthetic 
metabolism. 

Using methods based on control theory, Woodrow developed a 
model of photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation. His analysis 
demonstrated that in order to maintain a steady state, it is necessary 
to have a precise balance between input and output reactions of the 
cycle, while still maintaining optimal concentrations of the 
intermediate substrates. His work provides a rationale and a 
quantitative model explaining the need for the elaborate regulatory 
mechanisms observed in biochemical metabolism. 

Berry writes that a major advantage of the control theory 
approach is that it permits analysis of a system according to its 
structure, without precise knowledge of how the structure is 
achieved. Furthermore, he notes, new information may be added at 
a later date without reworking the existing model. To test and 
extend the model, Berry, Woodrow, and graduate student Timothy 
Ball are currently investigating the regulatory mechanisms used 
by leaf stomatal openings, which control the supply of carbon 
dioxide needed for the biochemical reactions occurring within. 
Visiting investigator Engelbert Weis from the University of 
Diisseldorf, West Germany, is also working with the model, 
integrating into it the initial, light-driven reactions of photosynthesis. 

According to Winslow Briggs, the work going on in Berry's lab 
"has produced a major step up in our understanding of the overall 
regulation of photosynthesis/' He adds that it also illustrates the 
importance of maintaining a vigorous exchange program with 
visiting investigators. "It is quite unlikely that any of the four 
investigators — Berry, Woodrow, Weis, or Ball— could have brought 
this program into such elegant focus working in isolation." 

Photoinhibition 

While Berry has been concentrating on the modeling and 
quantitative analysis of photosynthetic pathways, his fellow staff 
members David Fork and Olle Bjorkman have been continuing 
their efforts to study what happens to the photosynthetic mechanism 
when things go wrong, specifically when a plant receives too 
much light. How does it cope? What can it do to offset the potential 
damage to its photosynthetic apparatus? 

All plants, both sun-loving and shade-loving, are susceptible to 
this photosynthesis inhibiting phenomenon, called photoinhibition. 
Photoinhibition occurs when the photosynthetic pigments are 
excessively excited by too much light, which the plant cannot 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 19 

dissipate. Then, damage occurs to the reaction center of photosystem 
II, one of two photosystems of photosynthesis. If the damage is not 
repaired, photosynthetic efficiency inevitably declines. Fork studies 
this process by exploring its mechanisms at the biophysical level, 
while Bjorkman takes a more physiological approach. 

Recovery from Photoinhibition: Comparing Sun and Shade 
Plants. Bjorkman and postdoctoral fellow Barbara Demmig developed 
during the report year two simple techniques — one based on the 
photon yield of photosynthetic oxygen evolution, the other on 
chlorophyll fluorescence — to measure the efficiency by which plants 
photosynthesize. Bjorkman and Demmig found that these techniques 
could also be used to provide quantitative indicators of the extent 
of photoinhibition. This enabled them to do comparative studies on 
leaves of many different species of sun and shade plants. 

Sun leaves are intrinsically more tolerant of high light stress 
than are leaves of shade plants. For years it was thought that this 
tolerance was caused primarily by the greater capacity of sun 
leaves to do photosynthesis. After surveying some 44 species of 
plants, however, Bjorkman and Demmig found that an even more 
important factor was the greater capacity of sun leaves to recover 
from photoinhibition — not only after removal of the stress but 
during it as well. Sun leaves also appear to have another, much 
more developed protective mechanism at the molecular level, which 
enables them to dissipate excess light energy harmlessly. This 
mechanism is not yet characterized. 

Recovery from photoinhibition is faster in weak light than it is in 
total darkness. This was the major result emerging from experiments 
undertaken last year by Bjorkman and postdoctoral fellow Max 
Seyfried. This year, continuing the study, the two investigators 
found that light levels as low as 0.001 that of normal sunlight 
stimulated the rate of repair significantly over that occurring in 
darkness. They also found that the light must be continuous; if 
removed or interrupted, recovery returns to the dark level. 
Furthermore, they found that blue and red light are equally 
effective in stimulating repair, at levels proportional to light 
absorption by chlorophyll. This suggests that the photoreceptor 
mediating the recovery process is some form of chlorophyll, rather 
than the red-light-sensitive phytochrome or a blue light photoreceptor. 

Bjorkman plans to extend studies of photoinhibition to field- 
growing cotton plants. Cotton is often grown under conditions of 
high temperature, drought, and high light, and therefore is 
susceptible to photoinhibition. An interesting feature of cotton 
plants is that some species can do solar tracking (i.e., their leaves 
can follow the Sun throughout the day to maximize exposure), and 
some can not. Bjorkman plans to compare the two kinds of plants 
under different environmental conditions. 



20 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

Fluorescence Monitoring of Photoinhibition. Meanwhile, David 
Fork continued his pioneering use of fluorescence to monitor the 
mechanisms of photoinhibition. Last year, he and his colleagues 
found that a fluorescence decrease accompanies the onset of 
photoinhibition in plants given excess light. This year, Fork, with 
visiting investigators Salil Bose and Steven Herbert, discovered 
that many plants will show a decline in fluorescence even when no 
photoinhibition is involved. This indicates the presence of a protective 
mechanism perhaps like the one postulated by Bjorkman and 
Demmig. Preliminary experiments indicate that this mechanism 
dissipates the excess light energy as heat, but the details remain to 
be elucidated. 

Photosynthesis operates most efficiently when the rates of its 
two photosystem centers of reaction (each of which absorb different 
wavelengths of light) are in balance. Fork and Bose have found 
two ways in which that balance is restored if one of the two 
systems is exposed to a sudden change in light spectral quality (as 
might occur with low, understory plants in a forest when a tree 
forming part of a shading green canopy is removed by a storm). 
Some plants exposed to this sort of imbalance react by changing 
the relative amount of light absorbed by their two photosystems 
(presumably by migration of pigment-protein complexes from one 
photosystem to another). In this case, the antenna pigments adjust 
their sizes to maintain photochemical balance. In other plants, light 
absorbed by one photosystem may spill over to the other. Currently, 
Fork and Bose are probing the changes in membrane constituency 
resulting from this spillover. 




The recently completed greenhouses on the campus of the 
Department of Plant Biology. 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 21 

Architecture of the Photo synthetic Apparatus 

In order to understand photoinhibition and photoprotection fully, 
it is necessary to understand the structure of the two photosystems 
of photosynthesis. Particularly important is photosystem II, the 
site of photoinhibitory damage. Photosystem II contains chlorophyll, 
carotenoid pigments, and at least five different proteins. Postdoctoral 
fellow Akihiko Yamigishi and Fork have recently been successful in 
isolating the largest of these proteins, which they found can 
perform the primary photochemical reaction of photosystem II. 
They are currently examining what other reactions this protein can 
perform. 

Meanwhile, staff member Jeanette Brown continues her long- 
time interest in the ways that such proteins are assembled with 
pigments to form functional reaction complexes. During the report 
year, she and postdoctoral fellow Grazyna Bialek-Bylka found they 
could incorporate various pigment-protein complexes into dried 
films of polyvinyl alcohol without disturbing the primary light 
reactions of photosynthesis. Application of an electric current to the 
film as it dried preserved a fairly high degree of orientation of the 
complexes, readily demonstrable with polarized light. The technique 
should be a powerful one for providing information about the 
precise geometric relationships between pigments and proteins. 

Nutrient Stress and Coping Mechanisms in Cells 

The study of stress, particularly that of high light intensity, is a 
major part of the Department's eifforts. But light is not the only 
potentially stressful environmental influence being studied. Two 
other projects involve, respectively, high-salt stress and nutrient 
deprivation. 

High Salt in Mangroves. In their continuing study of how 
Australian mangrove species tolerate natural environments of full- 
strength seawater, Olle Bjorkman and Barbara Demmig compared 
plants grown under conditions of high salt (100% concentration 
seawater) with those grown under conditions of low salt (10% salt 
concentration seawater). They found that the high-salt-grown 
mangroves had a greater capacity (1) to exclude sodium and 
chloride, and (2) to secrete excess salt through specialized leaf 
glands. The energy costs of increased secretion and better exclusion 
are minor, for mangroves maintain the same rates of photosynthesis, 
water use efficiency, and growth whether grown in 100% or 10% 
seawater. 

Sulfate Deprivation. How do cells sense changes in their nutrient 



22 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

environment? How do they respond biochemically? Staff member 
Arthur Grossman and his colleagues found last year that when cells 
of algae are deprived of sulfate they begin to synthesize membrane 
machinery to facilitate sulfate uptake. This year, they have made 
progress in studying various components of this machinery. Graduate 
student Laura Green has isolated the sulfate-binding protein and 
other membrane-bound components whose synthesis increases 
during sulfate deprivation in the primitive alga Synechococcus; she 
has also initiated studies on the genes involved. Eugenio deHostos, 
meanwhile, has isolated the gene encoding an essential enzyme 
secreted by a sulfate-stressed green alga, Chlamydomonas 
reinhardtii. He is currently studying what features the gene has 
that might be of particular importance in its regulation. 

Molecular Membrane Traffic in_ Cells 

While scientists at the Department of Plant Biology investigate 
how plant cells respond to stress, cell biologists at the Department 
of Embryology focus on how animal cells maintain their separate 
environments and still function as parts of organic wholes. Especially 
critical is the cell surface, or plasma membrane, which protects the 
cells it surrounds and helps maintain communication with other 
cells. To keep the membrane in working order there is inside the 
cell an elaborate network of molecules especially designed for 
shuttling membrane components — the proteins and lipids — back 
and forth between the membrane and internal parts of the cell. At 
the Department of Embryology, cell biologists Martin Snider and 
Richard Pagano have developed novel methods for studying this 
molecular traffic in exquisite detail. 

Transmembrane Lipid Asymmetry. Membranes are dynamic, 
bilayered matrices whose very shape and bulk properties depend 
intimately on the chemical make-up of their individual components. 
The main structural units of membranes are lipids, of which 
thousands of molecular species exist. Some lipids also appear to 
have profound effects on cell function; because of this, biochemists 
and biophysicists have begun to take a new look at these fascinating 
molecules. One such scientist is Richard Pagano. 

Over the years Pagano and his colleagues have developed a 
powerful means to study lipids. They have learned how to attach 
fluorescent tags to synthetic lipid analogs, and then follow the 
movement of these analogs through the cells by fluorescence 
microscopy. Recently, Pagano's group has been using this technique 
in mammalian cells to study an interesting but poorly understood 
phenomenon in membrane biology, which is that some lipid classes 
are restricted to the outer half of the plasma membrane, while 
others are found only on the inner, or cytoplasmic, half of the 
membrane. (The best studied case of this transmembrane asymmetry 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 

is the red blood cell, but Pagano notes that such asymmetry may 
be a common feature of the membranes of all animal cells.) 

Pagano wonders at what point during the life cycle of a lipid its 
preferential orientation is established — does asymmetry begin at 
the lipid's intracellular site of synthesis, or is it established only 
later, once the lipid has traveled to its final site? Further, how does 
continuous cycling of a lipid between intracellular organelles and 
the plasma membrane affect its asymmetry? Finally, how is 
asymmetry maintained once established, and what is its biological 
function? 

To examine asymmetry, he and his colleagues (notably technician 
Ona Martin, who is especially adept at synthesizing lipid analogs) 
this year made a fluorescent analog of the lipid phosphatidylserine 
(PS), and found that it is restricted primarily to the outer leaflet of 
the plasma membrane at low temperatures (2°C). However, when 
the cells are briefly warmed to 7°C, the fluorescent PS quickly 
internalizes, labeling intracellular organelles such as the mitochondria 
and the nuclear envelope. (See Fig. 3.) PS does not move inside 



23 




Fig. 3. Richard Pagano and his colleagues at the Department of 
Embryology find that a fluorescent analog of phosphatidylserine (PS) 
undergoes rapid translayer movement ("flip-flop") at the plasma 
membrane of Chinese hamster fibroblasts. The cells are treated with the 
lipid analog for 30 minutes at 2°C, washed, and then warmed to 7°C for 
an additional 30 minutes. Photo A, above, shows a fluorescent 
micrograph of control cells showing labeling of intracellular membranes 
(mitochondria and the nuclear envelope). In photo B, cells were 
pretreated with a reagent which derivatizes protein sulfhydryl groups. 
This inhibited the movement of PS across the membrane, and no 
intracellular labeling is seen. 



24 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

by the usual mechanism of endocytosis, where a small portion of 
the plasma membrane folds inward and encloses extracellular 
substances in small vesicles which are then internalized, but by a 
transbilayer "flip-flop" through the membrane. 

Pagano and colleagues found that they could inhibit this 
transbilayer movement by three treatments: (1) if they first lowered 
cellular ATP levels by treatment with energy poisons, (2) if they 
pretreated cells with a reagent which reacts with protein sulfhydryl 
groups, or (3) if they used an unnatural stereoisomer of PS instead. 
These results strongly suggest to Pagano that a protein near the 
cell surface plays an important mediating role in the transbilayer 
movement of PS. The existence of such a mediator has important 
implications in the maintenance of PS lipid asymmetry. During the 
coming year, Pagano hopes to characterize further this protein 
molecule. 

Protein Traffic through the Golgi. The proteins embedded in a 
cell's lipid membrane can be as varied as the lipids themselves. 
Like lipids, each one of these proteins is originally assembled inside 
the cell, on a large network of channels called the rough endoplasmic 
reticulum. Many proteins are used internally, but others are 
secreted, or transported, to the cell surface, where they serve a 
variety of functions; some cell surface proteins synthesize macro- 
molecules for export; some bind to and internalize nutrients and 
hormones; some mediate interactions with neighboring cells. The 
question that intrigues staff associate Martin Snider is how proteins 
destined for the cell surface get to the cell surface. What routes do 
they take? And, once they get to the membrane, what happens to 
them? Are they degraded or do they recycle? 

It is known that cells contain a secretory and endocytic apparatus 
composed of from ten to twenty types of intracellular, membrane- 
bound organelles. Before reaching their final destinations in the cell 
surface membranes, newly made proteins are carried between 
these internal organelles in transport vesicles, formed by the 
outward budding of donor membranes that have fused with the 
protein's receptor. One organelle that all proteins seem to pass 
through in this way is the Golgi complex. When they emerge from 
the Golgi, the proteins are extensively modified. 

Snider is especially interested in charting the traffic through the 
Golgi complex. As described in Year Book 81> (p. 37), he and his 
colleagues have developed a method of marking the proteins (or, 
rather, the receptors that carry them) in a way that enables them 
to determine through which compartment of the Golgi — the distal 
(closest to the cell surface) or the proximal — the proteins have 
traveled. Two years ago, Snider had the first intimation that traffic 
through the Golgi is not unidirectional. He found that not only 
newly made proteins pass through; so too do proteins returning 
from the cell surface — those bearing, for example, hormones or 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 25 

nutrients. This was surprising, for the Golgi complex was thought 
to function primarily in the transport and modification of newly 
made molecules. 

This year, in examining Golgi transport more closely, Snider and 
colleagues found that proteins returning from the cell surface cycle 
through the proximal Golgi region not once but several times. In 
fact, for every newly made molecule passing through for the first 
time, there are some five to ten recycling molecules. This means 
that 80-90% of the glycoprotein traffic passing through this organelle 
is composed of recycling molecules. Snider, who has recently moved 
to Case Western Reserve University, is pursuing this fascinating 
discovery by examining the movement of individual proteins. 

Meanwhile, he maintains connection to Carnegie in a newly 
initiated collaboration with staff member Steven McKnight and 
postdoctoral fellow Frank Tufaro. McKnight and Tufaro are 
interested in interactions between viruses and their animal host 
cells. In one approach to this problem, they have begun to isolate 
host cell mutants that fail to support viral infection. In these cells, 
some cellular component that is critical to viral expression appears 
to be missing or defective. In one, where infection is not blocked 
until a very late stage, Snider and Tufaro have determined that the 
defect appears to be in the transport of newly made proteins from 
the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface — most probably at the 
level of the Golgi complex (see Fig. 4). Snider finds this particularly 
exciting not only because it is the first description of a mammalian 
cell mutant defective in protein transport, but because the methods 
developed by McKnight and Tufaro have the potential for generating 
a large collection of such mutants. This collection will be invaluable, 
he writes, in dissecting the complex membrane traffic that carries 
newly made glycoproteins to their final locations. 

Chromosomes 

The molecules that make up the lipids and proteins are assembled 
in the cell, but the directions for assembly come from inside the 
nucleus, where the chromosomes (containing proteins and the 
genes) provide the necessary information. At the Department of 
Embryology, two studies involving chromosomes are underway. 
Joseph Gall studies the structure and function of the extra-large 
amphibian chromosomes using monoclonal antibodies and a special 
nucleic acid hybridization technique that he developed many 
years ago. Meanwhile, staff associate David Schwartz reports a 
new method, which he developed, that makes it possible to resolve 
very large DNA molecules, large enough in some cases to correspond 
to whole chromosomes. 

Manipulating Large Molecules of DNA: Pulsed Electrophoresis. 
The ability to manipulate small DNA molecules has enabled molecular 



L Cells 



gro29 



Fig. 4. Photographs at right compare parental 
mouse L cells (left column) and mutant mouse 
cells resistant to herpes simplex virus (right 
column) isolated by Embryology staff member 
Steven McKnight and colleagues. Both cells were 
grown on glass cover slips and exposed to low 
concentrations of virus. At successive intervals 
after infection, cells were fixed, permeabilized, 
and tested for the presence of viral antigens. 
Photos show that antigens were produced in both 
cell lines throughout the initial infectious cycle. 
At the time when the parental mouse L cells 
begin to shed infectious virus (12 hours after 
infection), however, the mutant cell line restricts 
infection to a single cell. These observations 
suggest that the defect in this host cell mutant 
blocks herpes simplex virus at a late step during 
the viral infectious cycle. Further evidence, 
collected by postdoctoral fellow Frank Tufaro 
and staff associate Martin Snider, suggests that 
the defect lies in the transport of glycoprotein 
through the Golgi apparatus. 




4 hpi 



8 hpi 



2 hpi 



6 hpi 



20 hpi 



20 hpi 



biologists to isolate, clone, and sequence genes. A typical analysis 
may employ restriction enzymes to cut large DNA sequences 
into smaller, more-manageable fragments, which can subsequently 
be size fractionated by gel electrophoresis. (Gel electrophoresis, 
perhaps the most common tool in molecular biology, separates 
electrically charged molecules according to their weights by running 
them through a gel-like matrix; small DNA molecules move faster 
than large molecules, since they interact with the matrix less 
frequently.) 
Gel electrophoresis is ideal for separating small molecules, but 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 27 

for very large molecules, resolution is poor. David Schwartz 
reasoned several years ago that the major cause for this failure 
stemmed from severe distortion of the large DNA molecules. The 
molecules are pulled by an electrical field through holes in the 
gel matrix. These holes may be 100 times smaller than the molecules 
themselves. To get through, they must dramatically distort into 
long cylindrical conformations that look somewhat like writhing 
snakes. 

To take advantage of distortion, Schwartz found that he could 
apply across the gel an electrical field and change its orientation so 
that the snake would be constantly changing direction at all times. 
This made it possible selectively to attenuate velocity of different 
molecular size ranges. Thus, snake length, related to size, became 
the guide for the degree of orientation of the gel electrical field, 
and it became possible to resolve very large DNA molecules. 
Schwartz has used the new technique, called pulsed electrophoresis, 
to separate yeast chromosomes, converting the process of gene 
mapping (assigning a gene to a particular chromosomal loci) to an 
overnight procedure instead of one taking weeks. He has also used 
it to separate the chromosomes of the trypanosome, a vicious 
unicellular parasite that causes sleeping sickness in humans. His 
work has allowed some of the first genetics to be established 
for this organism. 

Pulsed electrophoresis helps researchers bridge the gap between 
cytogenetics, the study of gross physical chromosome structure, 
and recombinant DNA technology. Many biological questions fall in 
this gap, since their solution can be most easily accomplished by 
working with very large DNA molecules. An example is finding 
genes for human genetic diseases, such as Huntington's disease, in 
the midst of some six feet of DNA. 

Schwartz and colleagues are themselves beginning experiments 
with human DNA, using yeast as a cloning system for molecules up 
to 2000 kilobases (two million base pairs) in length. The largest 
DNA fragment that can be cloned using current techniques is about 
40 kilobases. Schwartz has also begun collaborative experiments 
with fellow staff member Allan Spradling. The two have succeeded 
in isolating a Drosophila mini-chromosome, from which they soon 
hope to isolate the centromere. (The centromere is a chromosome 
structure which holds the doubled chromosome strands together 
during replication.) If accomplished, this will be the first centromere 
isolated from any higher organism. The procedure could become 
a standard method for isolating centromeres from the chromosomes 
of other organisms. 

Exploring Chromosome Structure and Function. In what ways 
does activity of chromosomes affect development of an embryo? 
This is the question that fascinates Joseph Gall, who has been 
studying chromosome structure and function for many years. For 



28 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

his model system he has chosen the extraordinarily large "lampbrush" 
chromosomes found in the oocytes (maturing eggs before fertilization) 
of certain amphibians; the products of these chromosomes control 
all events in the early stages of embryo development. Because 
these chromosomes are so large and because so many of their genes 
appear to be turned on (as reflected in hundreds of looped-out sites 
of active RNA synthesis), lampbrush chromosomes permit a variety 
of molecular and microscopical studies that cannot be done in any 
other organism. 

During the report year, Gall continued his efforts to determine 
exactly what sequences of newt lampbrush DNA are transcribed on 
a particular cluster of loops. To do so, he and his colleagues use a 
technique called in situ nucleic acid hybridization, in which 
radioactively labeled RNA or DNA probes, made in the test tube, 
are used to locate complementary RNA molecules made by the 
oocyte along the chromosomes. Earlier, Gall and colleagues found 
that the loops synthesize not only messenger RNA, as expected, 
but also many other sequences including a long stretch transcribed 
from simple, highly repetitive satellite DNA. This result was 
unexpected, since the poorly understood satellite DNA is not 
normally transcribed. This year, Gall and postdoctoral fellow Lloyd 
Epstein report a second instance of satellite DNA transcription in 
newt lampbrush DNA; the RNA transcript molecule in this case 
has either the same length as the DNA from which it is transcribed 
or integral multiples of that length. They find that a synthetic 
dimer RNA molecule transcribed from this satellite DNA sequence 
spontaneously cleaves into the monomer form; that is, under 
certain ionic conditions, the molecule cleaves without the help of an 
enzyme. Such "self-cleavage" is an unusual chemical reaction, and 
Gall is hopeful that further study will provide hints as to the role of 
satellite RNA in the developing cell. 

With postdoctoral fellows Mark Roth and Patrick DiMario, Gall is 
also attempting to identify and characterize some of the most 
important proteins associated with lampbrush RNA transcripts in 
the newt and frog. (Frog chromosomes are smaller and more 
difficult to work with than those of the newt, but they are better 
suited to gene cloning and other molecular studies.) To isolate 
individual proteins, Gall et al. make monoclonal antibodies against a 
large number of nuclear proteins. They then select those antibodies 
that bind specifically to the lampbrush chromosomes. In this way, 
they hope to identify proteins involved in the synthesis, processing, 
and packaging of the RNA transcripts, and possibly in the transport 
of the messenger RNA to the cytoplasm of the egg. So far, they 
have identified several dozen antibodies of potential interest in the 
newt. Some of these bind to nearly all loops on the chromosomes, 
whereas others bind to only one pair of loops or to a small number 
of loops. 

In a different vein, Gall and colleagues during the report year 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 29 

completed two projects dealing with the ends, or telomeres, of 
chromosomes. Telomeres pose unique problems during chromosome 
replication. Graduate student Rahul Warrior found that the nucleotide 
sequence at the end of a small linear molecule in the mitochondria 
of the freshwater Hydra differs from other previously studied 
telomeres. Celeste Berg, also a graduate student, found that a 
linear molecule from the protozoan Tetrahymena failed to replicate 
correctly when injected into frog eggs, despite the fact that it 
contains normal telomere sequences. These results suggest to Gall 
that the problem of telomere replication may have been solved in 
different ways by different organisms. 

The Changeable Genome 

DNA sequence changes (substitutions, insertions, 
deletions, and rearrangements) are the likely source of 
phenotypic variation in evolution since they can affect 
genes or their regulation and influence biochemistry, 
development, morphology, and behavior. 

Roy J. Britten 
Science 231, p. 1393, 1986 

Techniques of molecular biology are ever improving, allowing 
increasingly more detailed study of chromosomes and genes at 
developmental time scales. But they are also proving useful as a 
means of studying changes that genomes undergo over a much 
longer, evolutionary time scale. For as a species changes over time, 
so too does the organization of its genome. 

Changes in genome organization are at the core of studies by 
Embryology staff member Nina Fedoroff and Carnegie-Caltech 
researcher Roy Britten. Fedoroff concentrates on the molecular 
characterization of movable pieces of chromosomes called transposable 
elements, which can promote drastic reorganization of the genome. 
Britten, meanwhile, studies how genome changes — by transposable 
elements and other means — may affect evolution. 

Maize Transposable Elements. Forty years ago, the geneticist 
Barbara McClintock discovered that transposable elements may 
have profound effect on genetic expression. Transposable elements 
have since been found in dozens of organisms, but they remain 
poorly understood. Do they perform roles in regulating genes or in 
facilitating adaptation or speciation — or are they mere parasites of 
the genome? Partly to answer this question, Nina Fedoroff in 
1978 launched a program to study maize transposable elements at 
the molecular level. Aided by the enormous stock of genetic 
information gathered earlier by McClintock, she and her colleagues 
have identified and characterized the simplest family of maize 
transposable elements — the Ac-Ds family. Last year, they began to 
examine the more complex Spm family. 



1hb The Spm element 



ORF 1 ORF2 



SAHRGHVSB RV R V 

I I l I ll l ll II ! L 




8011 



7995 



Fig. 5. Diagram of an intact maize suppressor-mutator element (Spm-s-7991A) 
and several defective derivatives, isolated by Nina Fedoroff and her Department 
of Embryology colleagues. The two large protein-encoding, or open-reading 
(ORFs), frames in the intact Spm element are indicated by arrows. The mutations 
detected in Spm-w-mutations (8745, a-m5, and 8011) are represented in the line 
immediately below the intact element (with the deletion in the 8011 element 
indicated by the solid line), while the deletions in the three defective copies at 
bottom (7995, 7977, and 8004) are indicated by solid bars below the diagram. 
Fedoroff et at. find that elements having mutations in their left halves (8745, a- 
m5, and 8011) are able to transpose on their own, while 7995, having a deletion 
from its right side, cannot. (7995, 7997, and 8004 can transpose only when an 
intact Spm element is present elsewhere in the plant's genome.) This suggests 
that the protein required for transposition (transposase) is encoded by the 
element's right half. However, sequences in the left half appear to be necessary 
for maximal expression of the transposase, since 8745, a-m5, and 8011 do not 
produce normal amounts. 



When the Spm element transposes, it can activate or inhibit the 
expression of genes into which it inserts. By studying fully functional 
Spm elements as well as several types of mutant Spm elements, 
including one that shows attentuated function and one completely 
devoid of function, Fedoroff and the members of her lab have 
determined the nucleotide sequences of Spm and studied which 
sequences of coding Spm DNA are critical for normal function. One 
of those sequences, occupying most of the element's right half, 
appears to encode the element's transposase, a protein that is 
required for Spm transposition. Another sequence encodes a 1.1- 
kilobase transcript, at least part of which is encoded at the extreme 
left of the element. Sequences in the left half seem to be necessary 
for maximal expression of the transposase sequence, since mutations 
therein reduce levels of transposase (see Fig. 5). 

The transposase appears to bind to a 12-base pair sequence 
found in several copies in both a direct and an inverted order at 
each end of the Spm element. Fedoroff et al. hypothesize that 
there is a transposable element-encoded protein, probably 
transposase, which has the ability to bind to the repeated sequences 
to promote gene expression and transcription of transposable 
element-encoded proteins. Future experiments will concentrate on 
the functional analysis of Spm by in vitro mutagenesis. (In vitro 
mutagenesis is a technique enabling researchers to study inside a 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 31 

living cell the effect of an artificially altered, or mutated, sequence 
of DNA.) 

Such analysis has already begun in Fedoroff s lab for the Ac and 
Ds elements. The group completed a study during the report year 
in which the Ac element was introduced (via a bacterial vector) into 
the cells of the tobacco plant. The experiment was designed to 
determine whether the element would function in tobacco, a 
dicotyledonous plant, as it normally does in the monocotyledonous 
maize plants from which it was isolated. They found that not only 
does the Ac element function as well in its new milieu as it does in 
maize, it has a surprisingly high transposition frequency. The 
reasons for this are yet unclear. 

In related experiments, Fedoroff and colleagues are also engaged 
in attempts to transfer Ac into Arabidopsis, a plant with an 
extremely small genome, for the purpose of evaluating its usefulness 
in this plant as a mutagen and gene tag. Already they have begun 
to construct mutated Ac elements for in vitro studies of Ac function. 

Genome Evolution. Roy Britten believes that transposable 
elements play important evolutionary roles. He also believes they 
are closely related to the many thousands of noncoding DNA 
sequences that exist in the genomes of higher organisms, (Britten, 
who works today at Caltech's Kerckhoff Marine Laboratory, 
discovered these repeated sequences more than twenty years ago 
as a staff member at Carnegie's Department of Terrestrial 
Magnetism.) 

Britten does both experimental and theoretical studies of genome 
evolution. In his experiments, he uses techniques of DNA hybrid- 
ization to compare relationships of repeated sequences among 
closely related species. In this way, he hopes to determine if, and 
at what rate, these sequences could have been transferred between 
species. This, in turn, would provide insight into rates and 
mechanisms of evolution. 

During the report year, he examined a long repeated sequence 
family cloned from the DNA of the sea urchin Strong 'y lucent rot us 
purpuratus. One of the 3-kilobase-long subfamilies from this 
repeat, he found, was also present (in an exact copy) in another, 
very distantly related sea urchin species (Tripneustes gratilla), 
whose single-copy DNA diverges widely from that of S. purpuratus. 
It is highly unlikely, says Britten, that this 3-kb-long segment 
was present in both lineages before they diverged (more than 100 
million years ago), especially considering that most of the genomes 
of these organisms differ enormously. More likely, he says, is that 
the repeats were recently transferred between the species — either 
by the natural action of transposable elements or by a viral 
infection. 

Britten is also using the literature to review measurements of 



32 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

single-copy, non-gene-coding DNA evolution in various species. 
Last year, he reported that the single-copy rate of mutation 
appears to differ significantly between species, and that the mutation 
rate for single-copy DNA is much higher than the mutation rate for 
the genes (which presumably are conserved because of selection 
pressures in the encoded proteins). This year, by comparing 
relationships between hybridization and divergence in literally 
thousands of species pairs, he finds that different parts of the 
single-copy sequences in different species evolve at different rates: 
a few fragments of DNA in each show a much greater degree of 
divergence than the majority. He does not yet know why this 
should be. 

Gene Function: Studies at the Department of Embryology 

An organism's genome contains a great mass of DNA, much of 
which serves no known purpose. The genome also contains a great 
many proteins, which in many cases are essential to the proper 
functioning of the genes. As Carnegie scientists continue to examine 
how genes are turned on and off during development, they pay 
more and more attention to these proteins, using techniques that 
allow them to explore genes in their natural environments — either 
in vivo, within the organism, or in vitro, in a test tube assay that 
mimics the natural environment. At the Department of Embryology, 
Steven McKnight, Sondra Lazarowitz, Donald Brown, Allan 
Spradling, and Samuel Ward have developed different experimental 
systems, but each investigator is asking the same general question: 
how does a gene work? 

Interactions of Viruses with the Animal Cell Genetic Apparatus. 
The goal of staff member Steven McKnight is to understand how 
viruses exploit the genetic apparatus of the animal cells they infect. 
The collaborative study described previously (p. 25) — the isolation 
of mutant cell lines that cannot support viral infection — is one of 
several approaches used in his laboratory to identify components in 
the host cell that are critical for viral growth. 

Over the last several years, McKnight and colleagues have relied 
heavily on techniques of in vitro mutagenesis to determine which 
DNA sequences in viruses are responsible for regulating viral gene 
expression. They systematically mutate various viral DNA sequences, 
introduce the mutated sequences into host animal cells, and then 
correlate the phenotypic effects of the mutations with the original 
locations of the sequences within the viral chromosome. From this 
they can identify exactly which viral DNA sequences are involved 
in regulating viral gene expression. They have shown that, in 
certain cases, these sequences serve as binding sites for regulatory 
proteins that are encoded either by the virus itself or by the host 
cell. 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 33 

During the report year, with colleagues Peter Johnson, Barbara 
Graves, and Bill Landschulz, McKnight made considerable progress 
in identifying and characterizing one such protein encoded by the 
host cell. This protein binds at several locations within the long 
terminal repeat segment of the murine sarcoma virus (MSV) 
genome. Last year, the group found that one of the binding sites in 
MSV plays a critical role in the expression of viral RNA. This site 
contains a nucleotide sequence reading CCAAT (C represents the 
nucleotide cytosine, A adenine, T thymine); such a "CAT" sequence, 
McKnight notes, is common to many mRNA-coding genes in the 
host cells that MSV typically infects. 

This year, the group has begun to identify the polypeptide that 
accounts for CAT-binding activity. Once this is accomplished, they 
hope to purify sufficient quantities to obtain either a partial amino 
acid sequence of the polypeptide, or to immunize rabbits. The next 
step will be to find and clone the host cell gene that encodes the 
protein. Then, they can begin functional studies of this gene's role 
in the synthesis of viral mRNA. 

The task that McKnight has initiated is not an easy one. The 
relationship of a virus to a host cell is complex. So, too, is the 
action of the virus itself. Herpes simplex virus (HSV), another 
animal virus studied by the McKnight laboratory, initiates a three- 
tiered program of viral gene expression when introduced into 
cultured animal cells. This year, the McKnight group confirmed 
that the program is cyclic: that is, a gene product of the third stage 
is required to initiate the first stage during the subsequent infectious 
cycle. Postdoctoral fellow Steve Triezenburg has identified and 
sequenced the gene encoding the third-stage viral factor, called the 
"virion factor." He has also studied one of the first-stage genes 
whose activity it induces. Yet unanswered is whether the virion 
factor binds directly to the first-stage gene or whether there is an 
intermediary binding protein. 

Though the gene products inducing the second and third stages 
of HSV infection have not been fully characterized, McKnight, 
graduate student Steve Weinheimer, and collaborator Donald Coen 
of Harvard Medical School have found, contrary to prevailing 
assumptions, that these products do not activate stages two and 
three by binding directly to the viral genes; rather, they appear to 
modify or interact with intermediary DNA-binding proteins from 
the host cell itself. Again, as with MSV, a mammalian host cell 
appears to participate actively in the expression of its viral parasite. 

The Molecular Characterization of Geminiviruses. Like McKnight, 
staff associate Sondra Lazarowitz studies viruses with the hope of 
understanding mechanisms of gene expression in host cells. The 
viruses she studies, called geminiviruses, infect plants. 

Lazarowitz reported last year that the four separate DNA 
components she found in extracts from squash infected with the 



34 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

whitefly-transmitted Squash Leaf Curl Virus (SqLCV) were in fact 
components of two different but closely related bipartite gemini vi- 
ruses — one with a narrow host range of infection (SqLCV-NR), the 
other with an unexpectedly broader range (SqLCV-BR). 

This year, using molecular hybridization and sequencing techniques, 
Lazarowitz, with Allison Pinder and graduate student Inara 
Lazdins, probed in detail the common regions of the bipartite 
components. (A small sequence element is common to this region in 
all gemini viruses; by locating this sequence element, Lazarowitz 
and colleagues could identify the common regions for each bipartite 
pair.) (See Fig. 6.) They found that these common regions, though 
not completely identical, were highly similar in the two SqLCV's. 
Most significant was the finding that SqLCV-NR has a deletion of 
thirteen bases compared to SqLCV-BR. This, plus the similarity in 
sequences of the genes flanking these regions, led her to the 
conclusion that the two SqLCV's are closely related in terms of 
their evolution. 

This relationship could have begun, she explains, by a mutation 
in the common region of one component of one bipartite virus, 
followed by recombination between the common regions of 
components under selective pressure in the appropriate host to 
generate the other bipartite virus with an altered host range. She 
suggests that the common regions in geminiviruses may determine 
the host range characteristics of each. Thus, it is here that she will 
concentrate her efforts in looking for transcription and replication 
control regions that interact with host cell regulatory factors. 

Regulation of Chorion Genes. In seeking other insights into gene 
regulation, staff member Allan Spradling uses as a model system 
the amplification (rapid increase in number) of chorion, or eggshell, 
genes of Drosophila, which are found in two major clusters on the 
X and third chromosomes. Spradling has long been intrigued by the 
chorion gene system because only one copy of the sequences 
comprising the chorion gene clusters exists in the germ line. 
Chromosome replication can be studied in greater detail in 
Drosophila, using the chorion gene system, than it can in virtually 
any other eukaryotic organism. 

Spradling has developed a powerful in vitro mutagenesis approach 
to explore how chorion genes are replicated and regulated. It is 
similar in intent to the one employed by McKnight, but it operates 
quite differently. The mutated chorion genes are not inserted into 
cells directly; they are instead inserted as passengers on naturally 
movable transposable elements. Three years ago, Spradling and 
former staff member Gerald Rubin found they could piggyback 
genes onto the "P" transposable elements of Drosophila. Once 
inserted into a female fly's egg cell, both the transposable element 
and the gene it carried were incorporated into the germ line. It 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 



35 



SQLCV 



Bam 



Sail EcoRI 



Mspl 




SacI 



Mspl 



Soli 



Hinfl 



Hinfl 

xbaI BglH 



Bam 



Sail 



Narrow Host Range 



Sail 




Sail 




Sod 



Hinfl 



SacI 



Sail 




Bgll 



Mlu I 



Broad Host Range 



HOMOLOGY HB0I0N3 OF SqLCV II (NARROW HOST RANGE. 8 COMPONENT) AND IV (BROAD HOST RANGB, A COMPONENT) 



10 20 30 40 50 60 70 30 90 100 110 
II AACaAAaTaAaTTAaaaTTTCAaTaaCATATTTaaTAAATATaAACCaGGACACCAaaaaaAGCTCTCTCTAAAACCTATTATTaCTaaTGTCCTaaTaTCCCATTTATAC 



IV AACGAAAGGAATTAGGQTTTC aTGaCATATTTCGTAAATATGCATCGaa CACCAGGAaaTaTCCTCTCAACTTTCTCATATTGCTaaTaTCCTaaTGTCCTATATATAC 
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 



(59) 



(29) 



II 



120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 

AA CTC T C TGGGGAGaACACCA GGaaCAAAATCGGCCATCCGCAATAATATTACCaaATGaCCaCAAATTTTTTaaTaTCCT ACTTTT ACAA GGCCCAGTCCCA 



IV CTCAAGACACATAAAGCCTCTAGaaaACACCAAGaaaCAAAATCaaCCATCCaCAATAATATTACCaaATGGCCGCCCGTTTTT GaTaTCCTCTACTTTAGCCCACGGGGCAGGCCC A 
110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 



(64) 



(16) 



Fig. 6. Diagram (a) represents the bipartite genomes of the narrow and broad 
host range Squash Leaf Curl Viruses (SqLCVs), as analyzed by Department of 
Embryology staff associate Sondra Lazarowitz and colleagues. The locations of the 
common regions are indicated by dashed lines. (Slashes in circles show restriction 
enzyme sites.) In (b), DNA sequences of the four common regions are compared; 
regions showing extensive homology are underlined. Numbers in parentheses 
indicate the number of identical bases in each. The results provide evidence that 
the two SqLCVs are closely related. 



36 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



was the first time functional genes had been inserted into a higher 
organism. 

With this technique, Spradling and colleagues hope to identify 
genes and gene products required for the rapid amplification of 
chorion genes, and to learn how the DNA sequences involved may 
control overall replication. (Replication is the duplication of all of 
the DNA in the genome; amplification is the multiple copying of 
only small parts of that DNA.) Spradling et al. have gradually 
narrowed their search to smaller and smaller DNA regions in the 
chorion gene clusters apparently responsible for amplification. They 
have found, for example, that each gene cluster contains only a 
single 300-nucleotide-long region essential for amplification within 
the region of 12,000-15,000 nucleotides undergoing replication. This 
critical region is likely to include a specific origin (start site) of 
replication, as well as sequences involved in developmental control. 
Further, the critical region appears to overlap sequences required 
for chorion gene transcription. Spradling thus suggests that a 
common mechanism may regulate the tissue-specificity of both 
amplification and transcription. 

Further insight is expected from study of the gene products 
required for chorion gene amplification. Postdoctoral fellow Richard 
Kelley has identified two genes — fs(3)293 and fs(3)272 — where 
mutations greatly reduce or eliminate amplification. One of them, 
272, appears to be the best current candidate for encoding a 
product required specifically for amplification. The 293 gene, in 
contrast, encodes a product that appears to be necessary for 
chromosome replication (see Fig. 7). 



Fig. 7. Allan Spradling and colleagues at the 
Department of Embryology have found two 
Drosophila chorion (eggshell) genes on the third 
and X chromosomes where mutations greatly 
reduce or eliminate amplification. One of them, 
fs(3)293, encodes a product required in mitotic 
cells during larval development; larvae containing 
mutant alleles of the gene fail to develop. Chart 
above shows that DNA extracted from late-stage 
egg chambers in wild-type flies containing a 
mutant 293 (293/ + ) amplify normally. In those 
females homozygous for the mutation (293/293), 
and in heterozygous flies with one amplification 
defective allele and one null allele or a deficiency 
(293/K43 and 293/Df, respectively), amplification 
is reduced. 



c 
o 



TO 
U 



Q. 

E 
< 



00 



80 



60 



40 



20 



3rd Chromosome Q 
X Chromosome [ !| 



293 293 293 293 



+ 



293 K43 



Df 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 37 

Meanwhile, postdoctoral fellow Lynn Cooley is developing a 
powerful new method to speed up the frequently arduous process of 
isolating Drosophila genes denned only by mutation. Her method 
involves the controlled transposition of transposable elements. 
When a transposable element moves into the middle of a gene's 
DNA sequences, its sequences physically "tag," or mark, that gene. 
Cooley selects fly strains containing single transpositions of elements 
inserted virtually at random on a known chromosome. When a 
mutation is detected, the gene whose disruption is responsible can 
be readily cloned, since it is tagged with a single transposable 
element found nowhere else in the mutant's genome. 

The Dual 5S RNA Gene System in Xenopus. Like Spradling and 
McKnight, Department of Embryology director Donald Brown also 
explores gene function. His work, undertaken with the 5S RNA 
genes in the frog-like Xenopus, has long served as a model for 
studying gene function, one that is often cited in textbooks and 
journals. 

5S RNA genes come in two varieties — oocyte-type and somatic- 
type. These two varieties are very similar and are present in all 
cells of Xenopus, but they are not expressed similarly. The somatic 
5S RNA genes are expressed in all cells, both somatic and oocyte, 
but the oocyte 5S RNA genes are expressed only in oocyte cells. 
(Oocytes are germ, or reproductive, cells; all nongerm cells of 
an organism are termed somatic.) Last year, Brown and his 
colleagues reported that a protein factor — designated TFIIIA — 
controls this differential expression by two simple principles. When 
the concentration of TFIIIA is high in a cell, as it is in oocytes, all 
of the 5S RNA genes function. When its concentration drops, as 
it does once the egg is fertilized and embryonic development 
begins, only those genes that bind TFIIIA most tightly (the 
somatic 5S RNA genes) are active. The weaker-binding oocyte 5S 
RNA genes are repressed. 

This year, Brown and postdoctoral fellow Kent Vrana began 
efforts to map the TFIIIA protein in detail. They found that it 
consists of discrete domains with separable functions. When sections 
of the protein were deleted and tested for function in vitro, Brown 
and Vrana found that the two ends of the protein appear to be 
required for transcription of, but not binding to, the 5S RNA gene; 
the middle section of TFIIIA is what actually binds to the 5S 
RNA gene. This middle region has a series of repeated zinc-binding 
regions ("zinc fingers") of the sort that are being found increasingly 
in proteins that interact with RNA and DNA. Again, as it has in 
the past, the 5S RNA gene system is proving its remarkable value 
as a system with general implications in eukaryotic biology. 

Brown's group discovered last year that TFIIIA is not the only 
protein factor that binds to the 5S RNA genes. There are at 
least two others, still unidentified. The resulting transcription 



38 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

complex is remarkably stable, that is, many rounds of RNA can be 
made from it. This is probably because the proteins bind not only 
to the gene but also to each other. According to Brown, this 
stability has essential biological consequences. It can account, for 
example, for the stability of the differentiated state in cells committed 
to make a specific product (for instance, a red blood cell), for in 
these cells, the same genes remain activated for long periods 
of time. 

Postdoctoral fellow Alan Wolffe found that the transcription 
complex is preserved during transcription but is dislodged during 
DNA replication. Once the chromosomes are replicated and the cell 
divided, the two progeny DNA molecules must be reprogrammed, 
presumably from free transcription factors present in the nucleoplasm. 
(Brown and Wolffe detect no inheritance of a preexisting transcription 
complex.) This may account for the observation that a committed 
cell can make its product only after it has stopped dividing. The 
fact that "housekeeping" genes (those expressed by all cells) can 
continue to be expressed in dividing cells suggests that the factors 
that influence their expression are abundant in the cell. Thus, they 
can be easily reprogrammed after each cell division. Still a mystery 
is what distinguishes development of a committed cell. Is there 
perhaps a "master" gene for each cell type, Brown asks, one whose 
transcription complex can withstand DNA replication and pass on 
its epigenetic imprint to progeny genes? 

Genetic Analysis of Cell Morphology. Staff member Samuel 
Ward approaches the problem of cell commitment from another 
perspective: that of cell shape. He notes that in viruses, most 
instructions for assembly are contained in the shapes of the proteins 
themselves: the molecules come together chemically much as atoms 
do, to form crystals. Is this true also for cells, he asks? If not, what 
other sources of information are used by the cell to control cellular 
assembly during development? 

Ward's lab has for many years used as a model system the 
single-celled sperm of the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. C. 
elegans is ideal for laboratory culture and genetic analysis, and its 
sperm are differentiated cells which can be isolated and studied 
almost as if they were single-celled organisms. Ward reports this 
year that he, his colleagues at the Department, and collaborators in 
England and Texas have so far found, using molecular cloning 
techniques, 41 genes that encode the major sperm protein. About 
half of these genes appear to be evolutionary relics of defective 
gene duplications, but the other half appear to be functional genes 
each encoding a nearly identical protein. These proteins are 
assembled into filaments that form the internal cytoskeleton of the 
sperm pseudopod. (A nematode sperm crawls like an amoeba; hence 
it has a pseudopod and not a flagellum.) The worm needs many 
genes because its sperm develop in a very short amount of time. 




Department of Embryology staff, June 1986. Bottom row, left to right: Kent Vrana, Ellen 
Cammon, Joseph Gall, Earl Potts, Donald Brown, David Schwartz, Karen Bennett, Ronald Millar. 
Second row: Richard Grill (kneeling), Diane Shakes, Nicole Angelier, Celeste Berg ; Barbara 
Sosnowski, Diane Thompson, Cindy Smith, David Meloni, Christine Murphy, Nina Fedoroff, Joe. 
Vokroy. Third row (standing): Inara Lazdins, Ernestine Flemmings, Robert Kingsbury, Allison 
Pinder, Martyn Darby, Peter Johnson, Terry Orr-Weaver, Alan Wolffe, Patrick DiMario, Richard 
Kelly, Lynn Cooley, Samuel Ward, Steven McKnight, Sondra Lazarowitz, Steven Weinheimer, 
Eileen Hogan, Gene Leys. Fourth row: Matthew Andrews, Ophelia Rogers, Mark Roth, William 
Landschulz, Frank Tufaro, Riccardo Losa, Patrick Masson, Martin Snider, Michael Koval, Shirley 
Whitaker, Susan Satchell, Patricia Englar. 



Members of Ward's lab have found that 36 of the 41 genes 
are grouped into seven clusters of genes, each of which consists of 
from three to seven genes. Further, the clusters are themselves 
clustered on the chromosomes: four clusters are on the left side of 
chromosome II, and three are in the middle of chromosome IV. 
Ward hopes to be able to determine if this clustering, like that 
studied in Drosophila by Allan Spradling, has functional significance, 
perhaps ensuring that genes all expressed at the same time in the 
same cell can be switched on together. 

Meanwhile, using the conventional genetic approach, postdoctoral 
fellow Steven L'Hernault has continued his effort to identify new 
genes that affect sperm motility. Laboring over agar plates, he 
cultivates large numbers of worms, selecting mutant strains that 
are sterile (i.e., that have defective sperm). So far, he has identified 
a total of 30 genes necessary for normal sperm differentiation. He 
has also obtained several rare mutations that suppress the sperm 
defects in one of those genes. The mutations, it turns out, are in 
other genes. 



40 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

Do the products of these other genes interact with the products 
of the defective gene to correct the defect, or do the mutated genes 
take over the function of the defective gene by following the same 
pathway of differentiation? Once the molecular identities of the 
genes are established, it should be possible to answer this question. 
Ultimately, writes Ward, the synthesis of molecular and genetic 
techniques will help him and his colleagues unravel the mechanism 
of sperm assembly, and provide clues as to how cells differentiate. 



Plant Development and the Effect of Light 

As information at various levels accumulates, it should 
become increasingly feasible to unravel the fundamental 
processes underlying light regulation of greening. 

Winslow R. Briggs 

July 1986 

As we have seen, a major thrust in the molecular work of the 
biologists at the Department of Embryology is to understand how 
genes function during development. Increasingly, this is becoming a 
major goal of scientists at the Department of Plant Biology — to 
understand how genes turn on and off during plant development. 

In studying the regulation of plant genes, plant scientists confront 
an environmental variable that is missing in animal biology — the 
effect of light. At the Department of Plant Biology, William 
Thompson has continued to probe the role of light in the regulation 
of pea and wheat genes. This year, both he and Winslow Briggs (in 
experiments undertaken at the molecular and physiological levels) 
report significant progress in understanding how phytochrome, a 
light-receptor pigment, induces the onset of photosynthesis. 
Meanwhile, Arthur Grossman continues to study the genes of a 
unique algal light-harvesting system. This year, he reports 
preliminary in vitro mutagenesis experiments designed to study 
function. 

Phytochrome and Development. Phytochrome is an important 
pigment. It plays roles in many developmental processes, such as 
greening (activation of photosynthesis), flowering, and seed 
germination. Phytochrome exists in two forms. Before a seedling 
has seen light, for example while it is still beneath the soil's 
surface, its phytochrome (if present) exists in an inactive form. 
Once it is exposed to very tiny amounts of red light, however, this 
inactive form, called Pr, is converted to its active, or Pfr, form. 
Even minute amounts of Pfr may be enough to activate important 
developmental changes. The reverse transition — from active to 
inactive forms of phytochrome — can be effected by exposing a plant 
to far red light. (This may occur naturally, for instance under a 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 41 

canopy of vegetation in which chlorophyll has absorbed virtually all 
of the red light and little of the far red light.) 

Over the past few years, Thompson and research associate Lon 
Kaufman have studied how light induces changes in the mRNA 
products of thirteen different photosynthesis-related genes. These 
genes, three of which have so far been identified (one this year 
by postdoctoral fellow Michael Dobres), respond to light in 
extraordinarily diverse ways (see Year Book 84, p. 19). Despite 
this diversity, Thompson et al. find that, in most cases, the effects 
are regulated by a single pigment — phytochrome. 

During the report year, the investigators have continued to 
study these phytochrome-induced responses. They have examined, 
for example, the rate at which each of the inductive responses 
"escapes" from phytochrome control by exposure at various times 
to far red light. The escape rate, they find, differs for each response. 
Because of this, Thompson believes that different phytochrome- 
regulated genes have different signal-response chains. Presumably, 
therefore, the responses of different genes can be "coupled" to the 
phytochrome system in different ways. 

However those signal-response chains may work, it is clear that 
the program of greening induced by red light is very complex. This 
complexity belies the fairly simplistic model (derived from the 
substantial literature of phytochrome-mediated changes related to 
greening) stating that phytochrome, as Pfr, induces greening 
merely by turning on specific photosynthesis-related genes. Especially 
critical in that model seems to be the transcription of a gene 
encoding a chlorophyll-binding protein. 

Though the model is correct, recent work suggests that Pfr may 
regulate greening, as well as other processes, on more than the 
transcription level. During the report year, for example, Benjamin 
Horwitz, a visiting investigator in the Briggs lab, obtained 
preliminary evidence that the phytochrome-mediated synthesis of 
chlorophyll itself, and not of a protein that binds to it, may be the 
limiting step in greening. Two other experiments undertaken this 
year, both in the Thompson lab, suggest that phytochrome plays 
regulatory roles in at least one way. Lon Kaufman has found that 
some phytochrome-induced increases in mRNA abundance require 
the continuous presence of Pfr, suggesting that phytochrome may 
play a regulatory role at the level of mRNA stability. 

Phytochrome and Gravity. Another study on phytochrome, 
undertaken in the Briggs lab on the gravitational response of corn 
roots, sheds additional insight on phytochrome's role in development. 
Workers in the Briggs lab had previously determined that the 
formation of Pfr in corn roots actually changes the gravitational 
response of the root. When grown in complete darkness, the roots 
grow horizontally, roughly at right angle to the gravitational 
vector; when exposed to red light, however, Pfr causes the roots to 



42 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

begin growing downward — at an angle that seems to be genetically 
fixed. Briggs's group also found that some phytochrome-triggered 
gravitational responses are caused by minute amounts of Pfr, while 
others may require several orders of magnitude more. 

Chloroplast Transcription. The effort to understand DNA 
organization and transcription in the chloroplast (the site of 
photosynthesis) in the pea plant has been under way for several 
years in the Thompson lab. (Pea is a particularly good plant for 
genetic and molecular analysis because of its longtime experimental 
use.) Significant progress has been made, and while there is still 
much to learn, the project is nearing completion. Thompson and 
postdoctoral fellow Neal Woodbury have been able to establish 
several properties of the system. First, they found that at least 
two-thirds of pea chloroplast DNA is transcribed. This was not 
unexpected, since the 120-kb chloroplast pea genome codes for over 
thirty known proteins in addition to all the ribosomal RNAs and 
possibly all the transfer RNAs required for the chloroplast 
translational apparatus. The investigators note, in fact, that most 
likely an even larger fraction is transcribed but in abundances too 
low to be detected. 

Thompson and Woodbury found also that there are in the pea 
chloroplast genome several groups of genes that are co-transcribed. 
A co-transcribed gene produces, in each case, a large pre-mRNA 
transcript which is then processed into several smaller mRNAs. In 
some cases, the proteins derived from translation of these smaller 
mRNAs serve a related function, for example as different subunits 
of the same protein complex. 

The two investigators also found that a single DNA fragment 
may be transcribed in such a way as to produce a variety of 
different-sized mRNAs. It is not clear whether these RNAs result 
from different starting and stopping sites in the DNA or whether 
they arise post-transcriptionally by some processing mechanism. 
Finally, the investigators found that though most transcripts are 
most abundant under continuous light, a few are most prominent 
after a brief pulse of light. These latter RNAs, writes Briggs, are 
prime candidates for a study of photoregulation of gene expression 
in the chloroplast that would parallel the extensive studies on the 
nuclear genome conducted in the Thompson lab. 

The Phycobilisome Genes. Arthur Grossman has taken a different 
approach in studying how genes respond to light. He focuses on a 
unique light-harvesting system (the phycobilisome system) in red 
algae and in primitive cyanobacteria. Phycobilisomes in many 
cyanobacteria show a remarkable ability to adjust their components 
in response to whatever wavelength, or color, of light they receive. 
This is called complementary chromatic adaptation. 

As a first step in understanding how chromatic adaptation works 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 43 

at the molecular level, Grossman and colleagues have been 
concentrating on isolating and analyzing those genes that make up 
the phycobilisome units in the cyanobacteria Fremyella diplosiphon. 
The phycobilisome genes code for the pigment-proteins phycocyanin, 
phycoerythrin, and allophycocyanin, as well as for the colorless 
"linker" proteins that hold the individual units together. Grossman 
et al. have found that some of the F. diplosiphon phycobilisome 
genes, for example one of the two phycocyanin genes, are constitutive 
(i.e., the rate of their transcription is relatively independent of 
environmental factors), while others (like the other phycocyanin 
gene and the phycoerythrin gene) are induced by appropriate 
wavelengths of light. 

In the case of phycocyanin (PC) genes, Grossman and colleagues 
find that whereas the constitutive gene set is expressed in both red 
and green light, the inducible gene set is expressed only in red 
light. (Each set consists of two genes — termed a and p.) Last year, 
the group reported that the genes in the inducible gene set are 
linked and are transcribed simultaneously as two mRNAs, one 3.8 
kilobases in length, the other 1.6 kilobases. This year, they report 
that the larger transcript also contains instructions for making two 
red-light-induced linker proteins, which are required for the PC 
subunits to assemble onto the phycobilisome. They have so far 
sequenced one of these linker genes; the other is two-thirds complete. 
(See Fig. 8.) From these results, Grossman concludes that the 



"inducible* "constitutive 

.,8-APC B,*-PC B,*-PC 



E E E EH H EHHHH HEHEH 

.4 ii i ■ ■ ' Y | 1 ' r¥— ' u -n U - LJ — L - 



P P P P PP PP 

l ■ — 



37 



4-10 



Ikb 



Fig. 8. Map of the genomic DNA of the cyanobacteria Fremyella diplosiphon 
made by Arthur Grossman and his colleagues at the Department of Plant Biology 
shows clustering of the genes for the light-harvesting proteins phycocyanin (PC), 
allophycocyanin (APC), and the colorless proteins (linkers), which link the 
proteins together into a functional unit called the phycobilisome. The genes, each 
of which consist of an a and (3 component, are read in the direction of the arrows; 
the size of the transcripts they produce is reflected in the arrow's length. As 
shown, the inducible PC gene set (which is transcribed only in red light) produces 
two transcripts, one of which also contains the product from the PC linker genes. 
The reason why there are two transcripts is not understood. The APC gene set 
also appears to be co-transcribed, but some evidence suggests that the larger 
transcript is made first and is then processed into two smaller ones. The lengths 
of the two clones (37 and 4-10) from which the map was derived are indicated 
by solid bars below; the length 1 kb indicates the relative length of 1,000 base 
pairs. H, P, and E represent the sites at which the restriction enzymes Hindlll, 
Pstl, and EcoRl cleave the DNA. 



44 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

larger transcript most likely encodes all of the components required 
for structural modifications of the phycobilisome in 
red light. A question remains: what purpose does the smaller 
transcript serve? 

Similar experiments are underway to isolate and study the genes 
of the other proteins in the phycobilisome complex. So far, Grossman 
and colleagues have found that the allophycocyanin (APC) genes 
are clustered near those of phycocyanin, but the phycoerythrin 
(PE) genes are not. Furthermore, the PE linker genes seem not to 
be contiguous with the PE a and p genes. Apparently, the PE 
linker genes, unlike those of PC and APC, are controlled by their 
own promoters. 

Grossman et al. have reached a point in their understanding of 
the phycobilisome complex such that they are beginning to develop 
procedures for studying function. These procedures include gene 
transfer into F. diplosiphon via conjugation and transformation. 
Eventually, the group hopes to use techniques of in vitro mutage- 
nesis, where the genes are mutated before they are transferred, 
and are tested for function by examining the resulting genetic 
effects on the organism. 

Algae as Model Systems. These planned experiments and others 
like them, at Carnegie's Department of Plant Biology and elsewhere, 
show great promise in understanding how light actually regulates 
the DNA sequences of the phycobilisome system. They also promise 
to illuminate our understanding of how light, in general, affects 
genes. As Winslow Briggs writes, "One can hardly overestimate 
the power of integrating studies of algae with investigations of 
regulatory and developmental mechanisms in higher plants." Algae 
are much easier to manipulate than are higher plants. One can do 
gene-for-gene replacements in algae, or introduce into their genomes 
specific genes or other DNA sequences that are modified in some 
way. Thus, one can begin to ask which DNA sequences are required 
for light regulation, or which are the important structural regions 
of the proteins thus produced. Though it would be naive to assume 
that regulatory mechanisms uncovered in algae, particularly 
prokaryotic algae, are closely similar to those in higher plants, 
studies with algae will surely provide strong leads of great value. 

The Human Embryo Collection 

Since 1975, the Department of Embryology's human and primate 
embryo collection has been located at the Primate Research Center, 
Davis, California 95616. Professor Ronan O'Rahilly maintains an 
active research program using the collection. He also administers it 
for use by anatomists worldwide. O'Rahilly's current interest is 
the description of the embryonic nervous system during the earliest 
months of embryogenesis. 



The Physical Sciences 

. . . the deeper terrestrial questions lead out in the end 
into the realm of cosmology, where the studies of the 
geologist, astronomer, physicist and chemist blend. 
Geophysical study must borrow much from astronomy, 
but it should make an equivalent return, for the 
phenomena of the earth are most important factors in 
cosmology. 

Report of the Advisory Committee on Geophysics 

Carnegie Institution of Washington 

R. S. Woodward, Chairman 

September 23, 1902 

There is no shortage of fundamental questions to challenge those 
who study the physical Earth and Universe. Basic understanding 
remains incomplete in countless areas of substantial dimension — the 
behavior of the Earth's moving plates and the mantle beneath, the 
fundamental mineralogical and penological phenomena that explain 
the Earth's active processes, how stars are formed in gaseous 
clouds, how dark matter may form about early stars perhaps to 
evolve into planetary systems. These are questions widely recognized 
by scientists worldwide, and they are among those currently 
occupying the astronomers and the earth and planetary scientists of 
the Carnegie Institution. 

Implicit in the diverse activities of Carnegie's physical scientists 
is that general observation noted at the start of this essay — that 
significant results are often largely attributable to the researcher's 
success in choosing a promising and original line of investigation. It 
is often a matter of identifying some critical area within some 
larger question — a link heretofore absent but now within reach, an 
aspect where new insight or discovery may unlock wider under- 
standing. 

A good illustration is in the recent work of astronomers Belva 
Campbell and Eric Persson of the Mount Wilson and Las Campanas 
Observatories (hereafter called the Observatories). These investiga- 
tors are making large contributions to the understanding of star 
formation through their studies of young stellar objects — stars in 
the process of forming inside dense molecular clouds of our Galaxy. 
Attempting to penetrate the near-opaque regions at wavelengths 
including the near-infrared, Campbell and Persson this year compared 
the positions of the centroids of the central sources observed with 
optical telescopes with those observed at the radio wavelengths. 
The offsets at various wavelengths offered a unique method for 
probing the nonobservable features, including the geometry of the 



46 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

inner-cloud regions of star birth and that of the circumstellar disks. 

Another case in point grows from the remarkable breakthrough 
this year at the Geophysical Laboratory in attaining experimental 
static pressures of 5.5 megabars — pressures well beyond those at 
the Earth's center. On the one hand, the technological achievement 
creates innumerable possibilities for frontier investigation into the 
nature of planetary interiors, raising for the Laboratory's scientists 
exciting but difficult choices in planning future experimental 
programs. At the same time, the achievement vindicates past 
decisions at the Geophysical Laboratory — to proceed with the 
development of the diamond-cell equipment and technique, and 
systematically to acquire experimental data now indispensable for 
interpreting observations at the higher pressures now possible. 



Very Distant Galaxies: Looking at the Earlier Universe 

It is appropriate to approach the problems of 
cosmology with feelings of respect for their importance, 
of awe for their vastness, and of exultation for the 
temerity of the human mind in attempting to solve 
them. They must be treated, however, by the detailed, 
critical, and dispassionate methods of the scientist. 

Richard C. Tolman 

Relativity Thermodynamics and Cosmology 

Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1934 

To Ray J. Weymann, who in July 1986 assumed leadership from 
George Preston as the director of the Mount Wilson and Las 
Campanas Observatories, the words of Professor Tolman in closing 
his classic text on cosmology seem yet as challenging as when first 
written five decades ago. It is Weymann's goal that the endeavors 
at the Observatories in all fields of astronomy continue to reflect 
Tolman's words. 

Both the scientist's sense of awe toward Nature noted by Tolman 
and the patient methods needed to understand it can be glimpsed in 
today's studies of very distant objects. Remarkable advances in 
recent years in the sensitivity of detectors used at telescopes make 
it possible to observe objects so far away that their light now seen 
was emitted billions of years ago. Astronomers are thus able to 
look at the Universe as it was much earlier in its evolution. 

Excellent candidates for such studies are certain faint objects 
previously detected from their emission at radio wavelengths. An 
investigator keenly interested in these objects is Rogier Windhorst, 
a postdoctoral fellow at the Observatories. Windhorst brings to 
this work considerable experience in radio survey work at the 
Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope in The Netherlands and at 
the Very Large Array in New Mexico. 

Windhorst and various collaborators work at several major 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 47 

ground-based observatories. They currently report results from (1) 
spectroscopic observations at Las Campanas and at Kitt Peak, 
Arizona, (2) observations in several colors simultaneously with the 
Four-Shooter CCD system at Palomar, (3) observations with 
infrared systems at Palomar and at the U.K. Infrared Telescope, 
Mauna Kea, and (4) new radio observations at the Very Large 
Array. They are learning what kinds of galaxies populated the 
earlier Universe, and they are seeking to identify ancient, primordial 
galaxies — galaxies formed in gaseous clouds and perhaps visible in 
their initial bursts of star formation. In one case, their results 
provide insight independent of most past evidence as to the age of 
the present Universe — a controversial issue in cosmology today. 

Identifying the Radio Sources Optically. Windhorst and others 
have found a marked upturn in the occurrence of distant radio 
sources at a certain level of brightness. There are an excessive 
number of very faint "microJansky" sources compared with ones at 
"milliJansky" levels. (A Jansky is a standard measure of radio 
"brightness." A microJansky source has one-millionth, a milliJansky 
source one-thousandth, this brightness. The brightest radio sources 
in the sky are hundreds of Janskys in strength.) Various models 
have been conceived to explain this phenomenon, but none have yet 
been confirmed. Windhorst, with various collaborators, has for 
some time worked to identify these distant radio sources optically 
and thereby to determine their true nature. 

Windhorst and Observatories staff member Alan Dressier recently 
reported study of eighteen microJansky radio sources (brighter 
than visual apparent magnitude 21). Performing low-resolution 
spectroscopy with the Las Campanas Universal Extragalactic 
Instrument, the investigators succeeded in identifying spectroscopi- 
cally all eighteen radio sources. Three proved to be stars in our 
own Galaxy. Three others were identified as early-type (i.e., 
elliptical) galaxies. The remaining twelve, Windhorst and Dressier 
showed, are blue galaxies having narrow but faint emission lines, 
whose spectra suggest ongoing bursts of star formation. Several of 
these galaxies are also peculiar in morphology: i.e., they were at 
one time merging or interacting galaxies. The redshifts are of 
intermediate value (z = 0.1-0.6). 

These results disprove earlier suggestions that the galaxies 
accounting for the upturn in the source counts are nearby dwarf 
galaxies or normal spiral galaxies. Instead, the upturn is apparently 
accounted for by the blue, actively star-forming, sometimes merging 
or interacting, radio galaxies. 

Windhorst and David Koo, a former postdoctoral fellow at the 
Department of Terrestrial Magnetism and now of the Space Telescope 
Science Institute, are continuing their past collaboration identifying 
milliJansky and microJansky radio sources. They observe with the 
Palomar Four-Shooter detection system, which contains four CCD 



48 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

arrays capable of simultaneous deep observations of objects over a 
large area of sky. The instrument was adapted by James E. Gunn 
of Princeton University from instrumentation originally built for 
the Space Telescope. Installed at the 200-inch telescope, the system 
offers an unprecedented capability for studying very faint objects. 
Typically, about twenty minutes of Four-Shooter time is required 
for optical detection and identification of the radio sources down to 
visual magnitude 25. For certain sources, integrations of up to 
one hour have been required for detections down to the remarkably 
faint level of magnitude 25.8 in waveband Gunn r and 26.0 in Gunn 

9- 

Their identifications have been going well: of one sample of 70 

previously unidentified radio sources, Windhorst and Koo associated 
68 with faint objects, mostly galaxies. This was an important 
result, because according to certain models explaining the distribution 
of milliJansky radio sources, this population should contain a 
significant number of primeval galaxies. 

In earlier work, Richard Kron of the University of Chicago, with 
Koo and Windhorst, found that the brighter radio sources are, in 
general, giant elliptical galaxies, while the very faint, sub-milliJansky 
sources are a class of blue, often interacting or merging, galaxies. 
(The earlier-described Windhorst-Dressler results supported the 
presence of the blue galaxies.) 

Investigating the dual population, Windhorst and Marc Oort from 
the Sterrewacht, Leiden, recently showed from observations at the 
Very Large Array that the two types are distinctly different in 
radio morphology. All the red giant ellipticals are extended radio 
sources, while the blue radio galaxies are essentially all compact. 
The question remains, whether the very faint blue galaxies are 
indeed primeval. 

Unidentified milliJansky sources, fainter than Gunn r magnitude 
26.0, could be very-high-redshift galaxies, possibly primeval. To 
investigate this possibility, Windhorst, with Gerry Neugebauer and 
Keith Matthews of Caltech, performed near-infrared photometry 
with the infrared systems at the Palomar 5-meter telescope, 
obtaining observations in the directions of the unidentified sources 
as well as observations of a calibration sample of somewhat brighter 
radio galaxies having measurable redshifts. 

Accurate seven-color photometry of the calibration sample 
determined characteristic features of faint, red radio galaxies; such 
galaxies, for example, have very red colors (r - K greater than 5). 
In the case of one of the unidentified sources, the observations 
yielded an upper limit in the infrared (H) of magnitude 21.2. The 
radio source is most likely a galaxy with a very large redshift (z 
greater than 2.0-2.5) and is a serious candidate to be a primeval 
radio galaxy. Studies of other possible candidates with deeper near- 
infrared photometry and Four-Shooter frames are needed. 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 49 

How Old Are the Faint Radio Galaxies? Windhorst, Koo, and 
Hyron Spinrad (University of California, Berkeley) used the Kitt 
Peak 4-meter Cryogenic Camera to obtain low-resolution spectra in 
the red of several faint, very red radio galaxies — i.e., giant 
ellipticals. The reddest-occurring colors of such galaxies at a given 
high redshift constrain the earliest possible time of their formation. 
The purpose of Windhorst, Koo, and Spinrad was to determine the 
earliest possible formation epoch of giant ellipticals, thereby setting 
a lower limit to the age of the Universe. 

The radio galaxies in the sample are generally double sources 
having very steep radio spectra. Optical spectra showed that such 
objects at brighter magnitudes are intrinsically luminous giant 
elliptical galaxies much alike in absolute magnitude. Measurements 
of redshift z for certain brighter galaxies fell between 0.60 and 
0.85. 

The data were analyzed by means of color- vs. -redshift and color- 
vs. -magnitude diagrams in conjunction with recent spectral evolution 
models for giant elliptical galaxies developed by Gustavo Bruzual 
(Merida, Venezuela). Figure 9 is a color-magnitude diagram showing 
the complete sample of galaxies, including those whose redshifts 
are yet unknown. The reddest-occurring color serves to constrain 
ages. 

The diagram shows that the reddest color of a radio galaxy is 
about 2.4. The good match of the reddest models to the red upper 
boundary of the data serve to justify Bruzual's models and their 
assumptions. Assuming that the models are indeed valid, then, the 
very red radio galaxies appear to require ages of 14-15 billion 
years. In the case of the galaxies lacking precise redshifts (r fainter 
than 22), this conclusion requires support with future deep 
spectroscopy. 

These interpretations contradict any proposed lesser age of the 
Universe and associated values of the Hubble constant H (which 
expresses the relation between distance and the velocity of expansion, 
or redshift). A younger Universe was also contradicted in earlier 
studies showing that the globular clusters of our Galaxy are very 
old. In both cases, the arguments depend on tracks in the Hertz- 
sprung-Russell (color- vs. -magnitude) diagram for stellar evolution. 
The distant, very red radio galaxies studied by Windhorst et al. 
thus provide independent evidence bearing on perhaps the most 
fundmental question in modern cosmology. 

The Clustering and Grouping of Galaxies 

Of great interest among cosmologists are questions about the 
large-scale distribution of matter in space. Recent discoveries of 
various inhomogeneities in the Universe are challenging traditional 



a. 

I 1 
(30 



-1 



"i — i — r — i — i — i — |— r — i — i — ] — i — i — i — t — i — i — r 
ai radio galaxies 

> glln =26.0 



o • Elliptical radio galaxies 
A a Blue radio galaxies 

C-models, Age=5,6,7 16 Gyr 

Ho=60 f q o =0.1, M r =-22.80 v 



-v 






"• -J^-»"--"-"-A A 6. 



6 A --6 * :7 /a 



< 



******;::>•• 






."'A 



) 



lim' 



J I I 



I I I 



J L 



J2.7 1 

1 .1 . . 



o 
rillB =26.0 

I I L 



16 



18 



20 22 

r (mag) 



24 



26 



Fig. 9. Color-magnitude diagram for radio galaxies of the sample used by 
Rogier Windhorst and colleagues for determining the oldest ages of very red radio 
galaxies. Circles are luminous red ellipticals; triangles are members of the class of 
blue (merging, interacting) radio galaxies. Notice that there are no galaxies 
greater in redness (g - r) than about 2.4. 

The dotted lines represent Bruzual's models of giant elliptical evolution. Note 
that the model predicts that galaxies of age 15-16 billion years (Gyr) should, in 
the reddest cases, reach values of redness ig - r) higher than the maximum 
actually observed. A maximum age for elliptical radio galaxies of about 14 billion 
years is thus suggested. 

(Filled symbols are extended sources in the radio, largely coinciding with the 
giant ellipticals for magnitude r brighter than 22.5. To the left of the dashed line 
r lim = 22.7, the redness scale is in photographic / - F, which is comparable to 
and can be transformed into Gunn g - r. Bruzual's passively evolving C-models 
are computed for a Scalo initial mass function and a wide range of galaxy ages; 
other parameters are H = 50, q = 0.1, and M r (2 = 0)= - 22.80.) 



views of the formation of the Universe and the nature of its 
expansion. How evenly or unevenly galaxies are distributed tells 
much about how galaxies form and evolve. Further, study of close 
groupings of galaxies offers opportunity to examine the effects of 
mutual gravitational interactions- — in destroying, for example, the 
relatively nonluminous halos that usually surround spiral galaxies. 
In any systematic study of the clumping of galaxies in superclus- 
ters, clusters, or lesser groupings, a necessary early step is to pin 
down definitively whether apparent groupings are real or whether 
they are merely chance alignments in direction of objects at very 
different distances from us. 



Clusters of Galaxies. Staff member Stephen Shectman of the 
Observatories has established a sample of 650 galaxy clusters in 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 51 

previously identified regions of dense galaxy population. The 
selected sample exhibits a population density in space six times 
higher than the density of the often-used Abell cluster population, 
thus promising usefulness for tracing large-scale structure in the 
distribution of galaxy clusters. 

Shectman has begun obtaining radial velocities (and hence, 
distances) from redshifts of these clusters, in order to determine 
their distribution in three dimensions. He has accumulated spectra 
of at least one galaxy in each cluster, and has so far analyzed two- 
thirds of these spectra to obtain redshifts. By measuring some of 
these galaxies twice and showing consistent results, Shectman has 
shown that the quality of the measurements is excellent. 

The identification of the members of a cluster is always confused 
by the possible superposition of alien galaxies or groups of galaxies 
along the line of sight. To explore this condition, Shectman has 
obtained radial velocities for two different galaxies in 120 of the 
clusters of his sample. In 80% of the pairs, the velocities are close 
enough to indicate that both are members of the same cluster. (The 
success rate for the Abell cluster sample is not appreciably higher.) 
The mean difference between the velocities of pair members is a 
value typical of small clusters of galaxies, a result supporting the 
validity of the sample. 

Shectman has carried out a preliminary analysis of the distribution 
in space of 309 members of the sample that lie within a given 
distance range. He finds that the clusters are in many cases 
grouped in fairly dense knots. (The apparent knots, moreover, are 
not results of chance superpositions of objects along our line of 
sight.) There appear to be large volumes where clusters are rare. 
Below declination 12° in the North Galactic skies, most of the 
clusters occur at the greater distances studied (21,000-26,000 km/ 
sec in radial velocity). 

The correlation function for these 309 clusters, calculated in three 
dimensions for separations up to 2,000 km/sec, clearly shows that 
the new sample is clustered ten times more strongly than individual 
galaxies, a result comparable to that seen in the Abell clusters. At 
larger scales, however, where the number of independently sampled 
volumes is small, the correlation function fails to characterize 
reliably the structure evident in the data. 

Galaxies in Compact Groups. In classic work begun in the 
1970's, Vera Rubin and Kent Ford of the Department of Terrestrial 
Magnetism (DTM) showed that a significant component of nonlumi- 
nous mass appears to be present in outer regions of spiral galaxies. 
In later investigations of the phenomena in both cluster and 
noncluster galaxies, the DTM investigators showed that rotational 
velocity (and mass distribution) patterns of cluster spirals were 
statistically different from those of noncluster spirals (Year Book 
8J>, pp. 55-57). It thus appeared that where galaxies are situated 



52 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

close to one another, their nonluminous halos are perhaps destroyed 
in interactions among galaxies or prevented from forming. 
Investigators at DTM therefore turned attention to a population of 
galaxies apparently in even more compact groups. The purpose was 
to investigate the effects of crowded environments on the dynamical 
properties of the individual members. 

It is known that in the rather dense environment of clusters, 
gravitational interactions among galaxies are rather likely to cause 
tidal distortions, alterations of galaxy orbits, and galaxy mergers. 
But in still tighter groupings of galaxies, like those under study by 
the DTM investigators, the high predicted rate of collision should 
have long ago caused each grouping to collapse into a single object. 
How have galaxies in small compact groups managed to survive? 

Several answers have been suggested: (1) the compact groups 
may be merely chance alignments of galaxies at very different 
distances from us, (2) the groupings, while real, may be only 
temporary conditions, occurring when the elongated orbits happen 
to bring the members together, or (3) the tight groupings may have 
formed recently from looser groups of galaxies, each with an 
extended nonluminous halo which was stripped in distant encounters, 
leading to evolution of the compact groups seen today. 

Rubin and postdoctoral fellow Deidre Hunter have investigated 
the groups of four or more galaxies previously identified by Paul 
Hickson (University of British Columbia) — groups smaller by far, 
but as densely populated as the rich clusters of galaxies. They have 
obtained images with a CCD at the 0.9-meter telescope at the Kitt 
Peak National Observatory. Images were taken through a broad- 
band R filter admitting primarily red starlight and also through 
a narrow-band filter centered on the Ha emission line of ionized 
gas, a signal typically emitted in regions of ionized gas associated 
with active star formation. These images were used to examine the 
faint outer envelopes of the galaxies in each group for evidence of 
galaxy interactions — tidal debris, or regions of current star formation. 
The Ha images were also used to examine elliptical galaxies for 
the presence of ionized gas — indication that smaller galaxies might 
have been destroyed in interactions and their gas acquired by 
ellipticals. (Ellipticals generally do not exhibit ionized gas and 
active star formation.) 

The study to date has been morphological, primarily involving 
study of the galaxy structures from the images. Conclusions will be 
stronger when the rotational velocities are measured. Interesting 
results, however, have been attained, and are seen in the images 
shown in Fig. 10. 

In the shallow exposure of galaxy group H79, the upper left and 
the rightmost galaxy reveal nonsymmetrical matter in their outer 
regions — evidence of heavy distortion. In the deep exposure, a 
peculiar extension is evident to the lower left and right of the 
grouping, and there is faint outer material enveloping the entire 
group. 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 53 

In H57, the galaxies to the upper right show faint outer 
nonsymmetries (distortions), and in H56 all but one member 
appears distorted. Thus H79, H57, and H56 are almost surely true 
groupings. 

In most other groups studied, however, distortions are generally 
milder and less prevalent. H40, for example, is probably not an 
interacting group, since none of its members exhibit distortions. A 
few ellipticals in these groups appear to exhibit Ha emission, and 
they will be examined spectrographically. 

In some groups, only a single member shows a peculiarity. In 
H82, looplike outer structures can be seen in the rightmost galaxy. 
Galaxy H44d in H44 exhibits interesting structure and arms. H58d 
is an elliptical galaxy exhibiting a jet extending outward from the 
center. Rubin and Hunter note that despite the oddities, these 
groupings are probably only apparent, since distortions are seen in 
only one member. 

Group H31 is very different from the others, and exhibits many 
knots of ionized gas in an irregular pattern when seen in Ha. 
Curiously, there is not much star light outside of these star-forming 
regions. A long-slit spectrum obtained by Rubin and Hunter at Las 
Campanas shows that the gas in this system is unusually highly 
excited. Thus H31 could be a cluster well in the process of merging 
even though tidal tails — shredded remnants of collisions — are not 
seen. H31, with its large star-forming knots, resembles a type of 
irregular galaxy characterized by very large star-forming regions. 
The investigators note that more data are needed to understand 
this puzzling system. 

Rubin and Hunter's study of the structure of galaxies in compact 
groups has confirmed that only about 25% of the apparent groups 
are truly regions of the highest galaxy density. These groups 
become targets for future rotational studies, which should reveal 
more of their evolutionary histories and the presence (or absence) 
of nonluminous matter. Rubin and Hunter note that these compact 
groups provide an opportunity "to understand the relative importance 
of heredity and of environment upon the evolution of galaxies." 

The Bootes Void Confirmed. A few years ago, Observatories staff 
members Paul Schechter and Stephen Shectman, working with 
Augustus Oemler, Jr. (Yale University) and Robert Kirshner 
(Harvard University) in studying the distribution of galaxies in 
three small fields about 30° apart, inferred the existence of a vast 
void largely uninhabited by galaxies, in the direction of the 
constellation Bootes. Since then, they have conducted a more 
extensive survey to test the reality of the void. Galaxies were 
selected from many small fields situated between the three original 
fields, and redshifts of 239 galaxies have been measured. The 
results confirm that the void discovered earlier is indeed real, that 
it is roughly spherical in shape, and that its radius is about 200 x 



H79 R (shallow) 




s ., ,1? r 



♦ 



H79 R (deep) 



# 




r -* 



v* 



H57 R 




H56 R 



H40 R (shallow) 



H40 R (deep) 






■.". i 



' * 





H82 Ha 



H82 R 




.j--.'-- , ifr.1V 




H44d R 




mm- 



x, \ 



S 



H44d Ha 





H58e,d R 






* *- 









i % 










H31 Ha 



♦ * • 




** 



• 



\ . 



•• • . • * 



* * 



Fig. 10. Twelve images of compact groups of galaxies obtained by DTM's Vera 
Rubin and Deidre Hunter. See text for explanation. 



56 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

10 6 light years. The region's low density is of high statistical 
significance, and does not appear easily reconcilable with any of the 
familiar models for the growth of structure in the Universe. The 
void does contain some unusual galaxies having strong, high- 
excitation emission spectra. 

A Large-Scale Motion of Galaxies. The growing evidence of 
nonuniform large-scale structure in the Universe was paralleled by 
the recent discovery of a large-scale major streaming motion, one 
distinct from the general motion attributable to the general expansion 
of the Universe. The newly discovered motion affects a vast volume 
of the Universe, 350 x 10 6 light years in diameter, and is of order 
greater than 600 km/sec. The motion may have been caused by the 
gravitational attraction of a distant, yet undiscovered and perhaps 
nonluminous mass, or it could be the remnant of nonuniform 
motions induced at or soon after the birth of the Universe. In 
either case, it seems clear that the expansion of the Universe is 
less smooth and orderly than was once thought. 

The discovery was the work of seven American and British 
astronomers, three of them with links to the Carnegie Institution — 
Alan Dressier (staff member at the Observatories), Sandra Faber 
(a student assistant in 1966 and predoctoral fellow in 1970-1971 at 
DTM, now at the Lick Observatory and serving also as a Carnegie 
Institution trustee), and David Burstein (a postdoctoral fellow at 
DTM 1977-1979, now at Arizona State University). The group has 
collaborated in obtaining observations of nearly 400 elliptical 
galaxies; many of the observations were obtained at Las Campanas. 
Distance was determined for each galaxy using a new method 
relying on the galaxy's brightness and the orbital speeds of its 
stars; redshift velocity was routinely measured. Knowing directions 
and distances, they prepared what was in effect a map displaying 
the measured velocities, and analyzed the resulting velocity map to 
reveal the velocity flow. 

It had previously been known that our own Galaxy and Local 
Group had a peculiar velocity of about 600 km/sec with respect to 
the cosmic background radiation. The investigators now discovered 
that this same motion was shared by the Hydra-Centaurus 
Supercluster, and also by galaxies located in the opposite direction, 
away from Hydra-Centaurus. Thus our own peculiar motion is not 
caused, as was previously supposed, by gravitational pull of the 
close-by Virgo Supercluster. It is part of a larger motion character- 
izing the whole local Universe (see Fig. 11). 

The new work is consistent with earlier measurements using 
different techniques by other researchers, among them DTM's Vera 
Rubin and Kent Ford. Dressier notes that in the region studied the 
galaxies are distributed in a greatly flattened configuration, and 
that the newly discovered flow is in this same great plane. This 
observation tends to support the model explaining the motion as 



\ / 

t 



\ 

\ / 

/ 



/ \ 



/ 



Fig. 11. The sketch at left represents a large region experiencing the unperturbed 
flow attributable to the expansion of the Universe; to an observer at rest with 
respect to the cosmic background radiation, all objects appear to be receding at 
speeds proportional to their distances. 

The sketch at right represents the same flow distorted by a uniform flow similar 
to the streaming pattern recently discovered by Alan Dressier and his collaborators. 
(Our Galaxy would be represented at the center, and the leftward flow would be 
in the general direction of the Hydra-Centaurus Supercluster.) 



\ 



\ 



gravitational in origin; perpendicular motion would be expected if 
the motion were that of an expanding shell (like the remnant of an 
explosion). The origin of the great mass flow remains uncertain, 
however, challenging scientific understanding of the distribution of 
matter in space. 

Measuring Mass, Distance, and the Expansion of the Universe 

More than fifty years ago, Edwin Hubble and Milton Humason at 
Mount Wilson demonstrated a linear relation between recessional 
(redshift) velocity and distance in galaxies, thereby determining 
that the Universe is expanding. The critical part of this classic 
work was in determining the distances. For nearby galaxies, the 
periods of Cepheid variable stars served to tell the absolute 
luminosities and hence their distances. For galaxies at greater 
distances, Hubble developed use of the brightest stars in each 
galaxy as standard candles; at still greater distances, the apparent 
brightness of entire galaxies allowed a statistical approach satisfactory 
to confirm that the velocity-distance relation continued to prevail. 

The linearity of the relation remains largely accepted today, 
although Hubble and Humason's distance values have been vastly 
modified. The slope of the velocity-distance line, as well as the size, 
age, and mass of the Universe which it dictates, remain yet 
controversial. 



58 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



Staff member Allan Sandage at the Observatories has worked for 
many years to develop various distance scales to pin down definitively 
the cosmological expansion. The velocity-distance relation is 
especially difficult to trace in our own part of the Universe because 
other motions are large compared with the velocity of expansion. 
Measured velocities have been too inaccurate and precise distance 
measurements to Cepheid variable stars in nearby galaxies too few 
to enable definitive answers. Both problems are now largely 
overcome. 

To enable separation of the cosmological velocity component (the 
velocity attributable to expansion of the Universe) from measured 
heliocentric velocities, Sandage performed a new solution of solar 
motion relative to the centroid of the Local Group. He used the 
assumption that the centroid was on a line connecting our Galaxy 
with M31 — the other large galaxy of the Local Group — and that the 
motion of the center of our Galaxy was directly toward M31. This 
solar motion was subtracted from the heliocentric velocities of the 
nearby galaxies to yield the cosmological components. Corrections 
were then made for our Galaxy's smaller infall velocity to the Virgo 
cluster. 

The resulting velocities attributable to expansion were then used 
along with distances obtained from Cepheids, yielding the velocity- 
distance diagram shown as Fig. 12. The linearity of the result and 
the relatively small scatter is evident. The slope corresponds to a 
Hubble constant H = 55 km/sec Mpc, a value indicating that 



Fig. 12. Allan Sandage's recent plot of 
recessional velocity, corrected, vs. distance in 
megaparsecs (1 Mpc = 3.26 x 10 6 light years) 
from Cepheid measurements, for local galaxies. 
The two most distant points represent the Virgo 
and Fornax clusters, whose distances were 
measured using type I supernovae as standard 
candles. The linear relation is strong (slope H = 
55 km/sec Mpc), indicating that the velocity- 
distance relation associated with the expansion of 
the Universe has been shown. 




-200 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 59 

the Universe has been expanding for about 18 billion years. The 
new result adds support for values of H reached by Sandage in 
other major studies over the years. 

Sandage also computed a family of curves expressing the local 
deceleration from linearity, assuming that the entire mass of the 
Local Group is concentrated at the center of mass of our Galaxy 
and M31. By fitting the curves to the observations, he reached a 
maximum value for the combined mass of our Galaxy and M31 of 3 
x 10 12 solar masses. This result fails to indicate the presence of 
substantial dark matter in the halos of our Galaxy or M31; the idea 
that large amounts of nonluminous matter are present in the 
Universe is accordingly discouraged. 

Supernovae as Distance Indicators. Sandage and Gustav A. 
Tammann of the University of Basel, in a venture supported by the 
U. S. and Swiss National Science Foundations, continued their 
search for supernovae in other galaxies at the 1-meter Swope 
telescope at Las Campanas. The objective is to explore and develop 
the use of supernovae as distance indicators for mapping the size 
and expansion of the Universe to great distances. Observers from 
the Astronomical Institute at Basel, working for two years, have 
obtained over 1,500 plates; eleven type I supernovae have been 
discovered and nine others have been photographically followed. 

An important emphasis has been on finding supernovae in 
elliptical/SO galaxies, where internal absorption is largely absent. 
About 500 elliptical/SO's were surveyed over an effective search 
time of 1.2 years. According to earlier calculations of supernova 
occurrence in ellipticals, the effort should have yielded 2.5 type I 
supernovae. However, no new supernovae were discovered, raising 
question as to the assumptions underlying the calculations. 

The investigators are obtaining and analyzing light curves; if it 
can be shown that all supernovae have consistent and constant 
colors, then their value as standard candles will be strengthened. 
The group is also working to refine the absorption corrections 
needed for determining magnitudes of supernovae in spiral galaxies, 
where supernovae are more plentiful. 

Working from the 35 known type I supernovae in elliptical and 
spiral galaxies, Sandage and Tammann reach a global value of H 
= 42, equating to an expanding Universe of 23 billion years. 

New Studies of Cepheids. Observatories postdoctoral fellow 
Wendy Freedman has continued her study of Cepheid variable 
stars in nearby galaxies; Freedman hopes to refine and extend use 
of the Cepheid period-luminosity relation as a distance indicator. 

An important recent result was her new data for Cepheids in the 
dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613, obtained from CCD observations in 
four colors. This galaxy has long been of much interest, since its 
Cepheid period-luminosity relation appeared to differ from all 



60 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

others. Freedman's CCD data indicate that the relation is indeed 
linear and has a slope consistent with other galaxies, in agreement 
with photographic data obtained by Sandage. 

Meanwhile Freedman, in collaboration with John Graham of DTM 
and several others, has begun a program to search for Cepheids in 
several Southern Hemisphere galaxies. A preliminary list of 
candidate variable stars is being compiled. New data are also being 
obtained for Cepheids discovered by Graham in NGC 300. Members 
of the group have also begun a program to determine empirically 
the effect of chemical composition, or metallicity, on the zero point 
of the Cepheid period-luminosity relation. Observing at the Canada- 
France-Hawaii telescope in Hawaii, the investigators obtained 
measurements of Cepheid fields in M31 and M33 at several radial 
locations. Since radial gradients in composition are known in these 
galaxies, the effects of metallicity can be tested. 

An Elliptical Galaxy and Its Companions. While it is widely 
accepted that spiral galaxies are embedded in massive but relatively 
faint halos, similar arguments concerning ellipticals have rested on 
x-ray observations of coronal gas, the extent and temperature of 
which are not well determined. In a quite different approach to the 
problem, Observatories staff members Alan Dressier and Paul 
Schechter, with former Carnegie fellow James Rose (now of the 
University of North Carolina), recently sought to estimate the total 
mass of an elliptical-dominated system from knowledge of its 
internal motions. They obtained observations of elliptical galaxy 
NGC 720 and its several dwarf companions. 

Working from a large-scale photograph obtained at the du Pont 
telescope at Las Campanas, the investigators demonstrated that 
the grouping of NGC 720 and its companions is real; of 15 galaxies 
on the plate brighter than visual magnitude 16, six have redshift 
velocities (and therefore distances) close to that of NGC 720. 
Moreover, the six exhibit a significant tendency to cluster around 
NGC 720, which is otherwise quite isolated. Their total luminosity 
is only 20% that of NGC 720 itself, so it is reasonable to assume 
that most of the mass in the system resides in NGC 720. 

Working from the dispersion in velocity of the six dwarfs about 
the velocity of NGC 720, the velocity dispersion of stars within 
NGC 720, and the mean orbital radii from the center of the system 
of the dwarfs and the NGC 720 stars, the investigators determined 
a mass 44 times greater than the mass inferred from the luminous 
stars alone. Although there remains considerable uncertainty, the 
result appears consistent with the presence of a massive, nonluminous 
halo. 

The Process of Star Formation 

Understanding the process of star formation is a central theme in 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 61 

nearly all branches of astronomy. Our sense of a galaxy's structure 
and nature is largely a product of our observations of its stars and 
other luminous matter. The formation of a primordial galaxy from a 
gaseous cloud must be understood in relation to the accompanying 
early star formation; the subsequent life-history of a galaxy, 
then, may be marked by fresh episodes of star formation, perhaps 
accompanied by gravitational interactions or mergers with other 
galaxies. The circumstances of star formation are also of interest in 
reverse — for understanding the extent and nature of matter that 
fails to form stars, remaining dark. How dark matter around stars 
may have formed may thus prove fundamental to those who study 
the interiors of the Earth and other planets. 

Observing Young Stellar Objects. Belva Campbell and Eric 
Persson of the Observatories have continued their investigations of 
molecular cloud regions harboring Young Stellar Objects (YSO's). 
These energetic objects, believed to be stars in the process of 
formation, are embedded in opaque envelopes and are characterized 
by bipolar outflows of molecular gas (Year Book 8£, pp. 70-73). In 
hopes of discovering previously undetected YSO's, Campbell and 
Persson, working at the 2.5-meter Las Campanas telescope, 
searched sky regions previously identified by the IRAS orbiting 
infrared telescope. Eliminating those sources having inappropriate 
energy distributions in the near-infrared or other disqualifying 
features, Campbell and Persson were left with a population of at 
least 15 new YSO's, each characterized by opaque envelopes 
and bipolar outflows. Deep CCD pictures of all the fields were 
obtained for morphological studies; infrared spectroscopy is planned. 

Meanwhile, in observations with the Four-Shooter CCD camera 
at the Palomar 5-meter telescope, Campbell and Persson further 
studied the classic YSO, GL 490. In their model, a circumstellar 
disk of material, optically thick, surrounds the YSO; the face of the 
disk on the near side is tilted toward us, the geometry allowing 
some light to reach us without passing through the full thickness of 
the disk plane. Campbell and Persson have turned their attention 
to the positional offset previously noted between the optical and 
radio centers of the GL 490 central source. Believing that the 
observed optical features are explained by the scattering of light, 
they predicted that the separation between the optical/near- 
infrared centroid and the radio centroid should vary with optical/ 
near-infrared wavelength: the largest offset should occur for the 
bluest image. 

Campbell and Persson have found similar offsets in two other 
YSO's. NGC 7538 IRS 1 is an extremely luminous, high-mass YSO, 
9,000 light years distant; its unresolved optical image is removed 
from the radio centroid in the direction of its blueshifted outflow. 
YSO Lynds 1551 IRS 5 is only 450 light years away, so that a more 
detailed view of its optical features is possible. The recent 



62 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

observations show that the separation between the optical/near- 
infrared and the radio centroids changes with the optical/near- 
infrared wavelength, as predicted by Campbell and Persson. The 
position angle of the shift is very close to the direction of the 
blueshifted side of the outflow and that of the jet-like structure 
seen in the plots. The observations serve as a kind of probe of the 
circumstellar disk, and Campbell and Persson are working to 
develop a simple model for the disk consistent with the data. 

In another investigation, Campbell combined Four-Shooter CCD 
frames of fields containing YSO's GL 490 and GL 961 with deep 
maps of the same regions made at the Very Large Array radio 
telescope and with flux maps from the IRAS infrared satellite. Her 
purpose was to investigate the possible presence of YSO's more 
deeply embedded and less luminous than those already known in 
these regions. Preliminary results indicate that such a population 
may indeed exist. Campbell's view of the radio source associated 
with GL 490 was at ten times higher sensitivity than that of 
any previous radio observation; the observations suggested the 
presence of previously unsuspected emission in the circumstellar 
disk, over and above that of the ionized mass-loss flow from the 
YSO itself. 

Last year, Persson and Peter McGregor reported that the 
spectrum of the active galaxy I Zw 1 bore strong resemblance to 
the spectra of YSO's. Similar features in I Zw 1 and YSO spectra 
appeared to be associated with material heavily shielded from 
ionizing photons from a central source. In the galaxy, the source 
may be the inner regions of an accretion disk around a black hole; 
in the YSO, it is the newly formed star and its immediate environ- 
ment. Persson and McGregor have continued to explore the 
phenomenon, working with spectra from other Seyfert galaxies and 
YSO's, and they note one case where the geometries of the YSO 
and Seyfert galaxy are highly similar apart from the size-scaling 
factor of several thousand. George Preston writes that if subsequent 
work continues to support the view that a single model explains 
star-forming activity in both realms, it will be a remarkable 
generalization. 

Observations of Herbig-Haro Objects. Astronomer John Graham, 
a staff member at DTM and an adjunct staff member at the 
Observatories, has begun a study of star formation in dense 
molecular clouds. He is observing Herbig-Haro objects (HH 
objects) — faint, nebulous regions often seen near the dark cloud 
cores which are believed to harbor stars in early stages of formation. 
Exploiting the fine photographic imaging possible over a moderate- 
sized field at the du Pont 2.5-meter telescope, Graham has succeeded 
in resolving certain nearby HH objects into a multitude of almost 
star-like knots. Graham is also performing CCD imaging over 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 63 

smaller fields at increased sensitivity, thereby finding additional 
features of very low surface brightness. 

Graham hopes to study how a young star interacts with the 
surrounding dust and gas left over from its birth. Some of this 
material may collect into primitive planetary bodies. Evidence is 
growing that such dust may be heated and in turn sorted by 
frequent flaring of the new star and simultaneous generation of a 
strong stellar wind. An outburst observed recently by Graham and 
Jay Frogel (National Optical Astronomy Observatories) near HH 57 
is an example of such an event. This year, observing at Las 
Campanas, Graham noticed that the reflected surface brightness of 
HH 46 has apparently increased by a factor of 5-10 during the 
last two years.* The source of the illumination itself (embedded in 
the larger dust cloud) is not directly visible, but the increase in the 
scattered light around it suggests that the embedded star is 
flaring or that the enveloping dust shell is slowly clearing. 

The work may provide an important observational link between 
the star-forming and planet-forming processes. 

The Existence of Dark Stars. The stars we see by naked eye all 
derive their energy primarily from the fusion of hydrogen into 
helium. As long as a sphere of hydrogen gas contains at least 8% 
the mass of our Sun, it will be hot enough to undergo fusion. 

But what about gaseous systems of lesser mass? The process of 
cloud collapse and fragmentation could very well produce objects 
having mass less than 8% the Sun's. Such objects, though essentially 
nonluminous, are clearly stars not planets. (By definition, stars 
form directly through the collapse of interstellar clouds; planets are 
formed by secondary processes occurring around stars.) 

Theoretical models of cloud collapse, designed to yield detailed 
mathematical descriptions, are based on the equations of gas 
hydrodynamics. To produce a realistic model of protostar formation, 
a number of physical effects must be included: stars are held 
together by self-gravity, and are supported against collapse by 
thermal pressure. In addition, since young stars rotate much faster 
than older stars like our Sun, angular momentum must be important 
during the formation process. Reinforcing this point is the frequent 
occurrence of double-star systems, where the angular momentum 
stored in the orbital motions far exceeds that stored in the spin 
rotation of each star. Thus, self-gravity, thermal pressure, and 
rotation are all surely required in star-formation models. In the 
modeling the cloud must be permitted to distort in all three spatial 
dimensions, to accommodate the possible formation of many stars. 
And because the process is also time-dependent, the solution must 
be four-dimensional in space and time. 



'An announcement appeared in IAU Circ. 4213. 



64 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

DTM's Alan Boss has spent ten years developing theoretical 
models which include these phenomena. Development of the 
necessary numerical techniques for solving the governing equations 
required much ingenuity. It was necessary, for example, to 
implement a method for following the flow of radiation in all three 
spatial dimensions — a crucially important aspect for determining 
the thermal pressure in early phases of star formation. (If the cloud 
is sufficiently dense, the radiation is trapped in the cloud and its 
energy contributes to the thermal pressure of the gas.) Calculation 
of the models has required large amounts of computer time, made 
available by continuous use of the Institution's VAX computers on 
low-priority basis. In 1985, the Institution installed an array 
processor, which will further speed the modeling effort. 

One important result of Boss's work is an estimate of the minimum 
protostellar mass. Since stars are much less massive than interstellar 
clouds, collapsing clouds must fragment into smaller objects to form 
stars. It has long been hypothesized that a hierarchy of fragmentation 
takes place, where a cloud fragments into pieces which themselves 
collapse and undergo further fragmentation. The smallest protostar 
is then determined by the smallest fragment at the cessation of 
fragmentation. Fragmentation may be expected to stop when the 
fragments become sufficiently dense to trap their radiation and 
thereafter increase their gas temperature. The numerical methods 
developed by Boss allow this process to be rigorously modeled. 

The models imply that, while hierarchical fragmentation is 
unlikely to involve the many stages formerly hypothesized, at least 
a few stages are plausible. By examining the outcomes of runs 
spanning all possible initial conditions for interstellar clouds and 
their fragments, Boss showed that a lower bound on the minimum 
mass of a protostar is about 1% the Sun's mass. This minimum 
mass is about ten times the mass of Jupiter, the largest known 
planet. 

If stars this small exist, Boss writes, then some tantalyzing 
possibilities appear. It would mean that a new population of stars, 
between 1% and 8% of the Sun's mass, exists in our Galaxy, 
waiting to be discovered. Any "brown dwarfs" that are members of 
binary systems can be sought indirectly through astrometric 
methods, by detecting and measuring wobble in certain visible 
stars. Although brown dwarfs have not been observed beyond 
doubt, wobble measured in several nearby stars is usually attributed 
to an unseen binary companion. In these cases, the astrometric 
solutions and unsuccessful infrared searches for the unseen 
companions restrict any brown-dwarf companion to a mass between 
1% and 5% the Sun's, roughly consistent with the theoretical 
minimum mass. 

Because hydrogen fusion does not occur, brown dwarfs can only 
radiate the energy produced by compression during the collapse 
phase. They are thus luminous for only a short period after their 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 65 

formation, making direct detection difficult. The Space Infrared 
Telescope Facility planned by NASA will perhaps enable observation 
of newly formed brown dwarfs. 

It is possible that once hierarchical fragmentation is started, it 
may be hard to stop. If so, there may be many brown dwarfs, and 
their combined mass could make up a large fraction of the total 
mass of the Universe. Brown dwarfs are prime candidates for 
constituting the missing mass identified in studies of galaxies. 

Understanding Our Galaxy and Its Neighbors 

The remarkable gains in instrumentation and technique that have 
advanced the deep observation of faint, distant objects, have also 
brought new opportunities for observing detailed features of our 
own Galaxy and its neighbors at high resolution. These relatively 
close-by subjects are of intrinsic interest, as parts of our local 
Universe; they also offer a singular means of addressing more- 
general questions about the processes of galaxy formation and 
evolution. 

The Formation of Our Galaxy. Correlations between the orbital 
properties of stars and their chemical compositions offer evidence 
on physical processes during formation of our Galaxy. A conventional 
picture holds that the spheroidally distributed stars formed early in 
the collapse of what became the Galaxy and are therefore poor in 
elements heavier than helium; in contrast, stars of the rotating disk 
were formed later in the collapse of gas and dust enriched in the 
heavier elements. 

Astronomers recently recognized the Galaxy's thick disk — a 
component somewhat outside the more densely populated thin disk 
along the Galactic plane, and whose stars appear intermediate in 
property between those of the thin disk and the halo. The thick 
disk offers a population of stars whose characteristics might explain 
the physics of bulge-star and disk-star formation. Seeking to 
distinguish a population of thick-disk stars from overlapping 
distributions, Observatories visiting investigators Gerard Gilmore 
(Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, England) and Rosemary Wyse 
(University of California, Berkeley) have been measuring chemical 
abundances and kinematics of F and G stars in a volume where the 
thick disk is assuredly the dominant component. Preliminary 
results from measurements of about 1,000 such stars confirm that 
many have kinematic and chemical properties intermediate between 
those of the extreme spheroid and the thin disk. Gilmore believes 
that these stars provide a natural solution to the "G-dwarf problem," 
where there is an absence of old stars near the Sun having heavy- 
element abundances approximately one-tenth the Sun's. These 
are the stars that are most common in the thick disk. 

The mothballing of the 2.5-meter Hooker telescope at Mount 



66 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

Wilson in 1985 coincided with completion of Allan Sandage's long- 
term program of observations to map the Galaxy's halo. Photometric 
and radial velocity data from the venture have been published, and 
Sandage and Gary Fouts, now of Computer Sciences Corporation, 
have completed their analysis of the data. A foremost result is that 
the distribution in heavy-element abundance [Fe/H] of the halo is 
distinctly different from that of the thick disk. A distinct change in 
the formation history of these components appears to be indicated. 
Sandage envisions, however, that the process of collapse was 
largely continuous, where the differences between the halo, the 
thick disk, and the thin disk components were produced by two 
appreciable changes in the slope of the collapse-rate vs. heavy- 
element-enrichment-rate relation. The data, he concludes, support 
a continuous and coherent process of Galaxy formation, where 
discontinuities result from differences in cooling rates during the 
collapse. 

An Intensive Look at the Center of Spiral Galaxy M33. Two 
decades ago, Vera Rubin and Kent Ford conducted a long-term 
study of M31 — our Galaxy's magnificent sister. Their measurements 
of the dynamics of M31 became an early step in their systematic 
investigation of rotation and mass distribution in spiral galaxies. 
Their detectors and spectrographs were advanced for the day but 
were far less capable than today's equipment. Even so, given M31's 
proximity to us, Rubin and Ford were also able to look closely at 
regions of the nuclear bulge and develop valuable conclusions. 

Rubin and Ford now report recent high-resolution spectroscopic 
observations of the central part of the spiral galaxy M33. A neighbor 
of M31 but much smaller, M33 also possesses a beautiful spiral 
structure outlined by well-defined emission regions. The nuclear 
bulge is relatively small, and a nearly pointlike object, or semistellar 
nucleus, can be detected close to the very center. 

Rubin and Ford used the Palomar 5-meter telescope with double 
spectrograph and CCD detector to observe the spectral characteristics 
of the central region. Figure 13 is an image of the innermost region 
of M33, photographed with Ha filter. The major axis of a 2' 
spectrograph slit is shown, with the semistellar nucleus centered 
thereon. 

The resulting spectra were unusual in that the semistellar 
nucleus exhibited Ha in absorption rather than in emission. (The 
powerful Ha emission from excited hydrogen in the disks of spirals 
creates the strong line customarily used in studying galaxy rotation.) 
If M33 were more distant, then the width of the slit would necessarily 
include not only the nucleus but also a larger contribution from the 
disk; the absorption at the nucleus would be swamped by contami- 
nation from disk emissions. More generally, Rubin and Ford note, 
measured ratios of intensities [NII]/Ha in galaxies are characterist- 
ically influenced by the distances of galaxies from us. (In galaxies 




Fig. 13. The inner region of spiral galaxy M33, imaged with Ha filter. The 
semistellar nucleus, which lies close to the exact dynamical center, is shown at the 
center of the 2' spectrograph^ slit, which is aligned with the major axis of the 
galaxy. (This plate of M33 was taken by Malcolm Smith, then a staff member at 
the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, with the Cerro Tololo 4-meter 
telescope.) 

at large distances, Ha absorption at the center is overwhelmed by 
disk emission, so measured ratios tend to be artificially low.) 

From their observations of M33, Rubin and Ford conclude that 
the nucleus, which apparently contains a negligible amount of 
neutral hydrogen, is therefore chemically distinct from the disk. 
Plotting observed wavelengths in the inner region either side 
of center, Rubin and Ford found unmistakable evidence of rotation 
(see Fig. 14). A steep gradient is evident across the center, leveling 
into a surprisingly flat curve over the inner region. Radio observa- 
tions of the neutral hydrogen show that rotational velocities rise 
beyond this flat portion. This curious pattern has important 
implications for the distribution of mass near the center of M33, a 
matter now under study. 

There is a small but distinct displacement of the center of 
symmetry when determined by the optical velocities. This displace- 
ment, while real, would be unobservable in more-distant galaxies. 
Ford and Rubin explain this small-scale asymmetry (as well as 
larger ones noted earlier by other investigators) by noting that M33 
contains a remarkably small nucleus and bulge: it simply lacks a 
dominant gravitational entity to define the exact dynamic center. 

Both in M31 and in M33, Rubin and Ford found a complex 







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Fig. 14. Rubin and Ford's rotational curve showing change in 
apparent velocity across the center of the inner regions of 
M33. The wavelength (velocity) shift either side of center is 
marked; the dynamical center is offset slightly (about 2 arc 
seconds) from the position of the semistellar nucleus, a feature 
reflecting the lack of a strong gravitational entity at the center. 
Measurements in Ha and the emission line of S[II], both 
shown here, yield similar results. Radio observations in HI by 
other investigators reveal that the velocity of rotation increases 
beyond this flat inner region. 

pattern of velocities in the inner region, though in both cases 
rotation is clear-cut. They note that higher-resolution observations, 
obtainable soon with the Hubble Space Telescope, should increase 
knowledge of the nuclear properties of M33 and other nearby 
galaxies. 

Interstellar Dust in MSI. Several years ago, Observatories staff 
member Leonard Searle showed that the properties of the interstellar 
dust in M31 change in a systematic way along the radius of its disk 
(Year Book 82, pp. 622-624). As his probe, Searle used M31's 
globular clusters, some of which lay in front of the absorbing dust 
sheet, others behind. Searle found that the wavelength dependence 
of this absorption changed across the galaxy's disk. 

Searle and Ian Thompson now report further investigations of 
this phenomenon using the new detectors now available at Palomar; 
they have expanded the sample of globulars and the wavelengths 
studied, and have used infrared photometry obtained by collaborators 
Eric Persson, Bel Campbell, and Keith Matthews (Caltech). 

The new study strengthens the earlier conclusions. Extinction in 
the violet (for a given reddening in V - K) is large when the 
obscuring dust is near the center of M31 and small when it is at the 
periphery of the disk. The change is roughly linear out to radii 
where values are close to those found in our own neighborhood of 
our Galaxy. 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 69 

The dust responsible for interstellar reddening is thought to have 
been formed in, and then ejected from, the atmospheres of cool 
evolved giant stars. There are two common types of such stars, 
Carbon stars and M stars, whose atmospheres contain free carbon 
and free oxygen, respectively. In our Galaxy, the ratio of these two 
types of stars is known to vary systematically with distance from 
the center of the Galaxy. It seems likely that the radial variation in 
the dust properties of M31 has its origin in a similar change in the 
populations of dust-producing stars. 

Preston believes that the final idea is an intriguing one. "It would 
be remarkable and exciting if the relationship is in fact a causal 
one," he writes. 

Star Formation Rates as a Clue to Galaxy Evolution. Were the 
galaxies of the early Universe similar in their Hubble type (i.e., 
according to their observable features) to the galaxies seen today? 
Or has there been substantial evolution of galaxy form accompanying 
the continuing star-formation process, such that the original galaxy 
configurations are no longer recognizable? 

There are several ways to address such questions. One is to look 
at very distant galaxies in order to observe the Universe as it was 
at a much earlier time. Another is to measure present star- 
formation rates in galaxies; rates can then be compared with the 
supply of hydrogen gas available for further star formation in 
galaxies, thereby predicting when star formation will nearly cease. 
Results can be translated into estimates for past star formation, 
giving indication of past galaxy evolution. 

Allan Sandage has taken the second approach, combining past 
star-formation data with new calculations of present gas consumption 
in galaxies of different types. His calculations for certain galaxies of 
the Local Group and the nearby Virgo cluster indicate that the 
hydrogen yet remaining in these galaxies will be consumed in less 
than the present age of the Universe, thereby indicating that there 
is rapid change in the galaxy population even today. The conclusion 
is subject to assumptions, seemingly reasonable ones, as to the 
lower limit of stars formed in each star-formation episode. 

Sandage has also concluded that the properties of galaxies can be 
understood by the behavior of a single variable — the time rate of 
change of the star-formation rate (dSFR/dT). In galaxies with 
bulges (ellipticals, SO's, and the centers of Sa's and Sb's), dSFR/dT 
was very large at early times, such that most stars were formed 
in a short time compared with the collapse time of the gas. Gas 
dissipation was small, and no disks (or small disks only) resulted 
(see Fig. 15). In disk-dominated systems (Sc's, Sd's, and Sm's), the 
opposite is true. 

Sandage points out that this picture appears capable of explaining 
changes in bulge-to-disk ratio, disk surface brightness, integrated 
color, mean disk age, and present star-formation rate per unit 



70 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



mass, which for Sc galaxies is much larger than for E, SO, and Sa 
galaxies but was much smaller in the past. The detailed physics of 
the dSFR/dT function remain for the future, Sandage notes. 

The Eight-Meter Telescope Project 

The 8-meter telescope idea has stimulated much mental energy at 
the Observatories. What should be the scientific expectations for 
the facility? To what extent should there be provision for research 
methods having no current interest but of possible future importance? 
Such questions were translated into technical issues as to space 
allowances in the telescope enclosure and the placement of foci. 

Progress in practical matters was evident. The search for a 
Project Manager was completed upon the appointment of W. Albert 
Hiltner. A site-testing program was initiated at various locations 
on the Las Campanas grounds, using equipment constructed under 
the supervision of Eric Persson. An inquiry was begun as to 
needed alterations for the mountain road to allow safe transport of 



Fig. 15. Variation of the rate of star formation 
with time (dSFR/dT), from recent calculations by 
Allan Sandage of the Observatories. Bulge- 
dominated galaxies (ellipticals and SO's) perform 
most of their star formation in their early 
evolution. The vertical dashed line represents 
time for the initial gas to collapse, and it 
separates bulge from disk formation. (The areas 
under the SO and Sm curves are hatched for 
clarity.) Measurement of dSFR/dT thus offers an 
indication of a galaxy's evolutionary situation. 



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THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 71 

the mirror from the port city of Coquimbo to Las Campanas. 

Such matters required close interaction with scientists at the 
University of Arizona and the Johns Hopkins University. Preston 
writes that the conduct of these dialogues with colleagues elsewhere 
was itself a learning experience for himself and the staff. Although 
his enthusiasm for the future telescope is unlimited, Preston notes 
that "while we may wish or vow otherwise, the telescope project is 
bound increasingly to divert the attention of Carnegie astronomers 
from their more traditional academic efforts as involvement deepens." 

Solar and Stellar Observations at Mount Wilson 

Although the 2.5-meter Hooker telescope was mothballed in June 
1985, as planned, the Carnegie Institution entered informal 
agreements for the use of other facilities at Mount Wilson by 
visiting investigators, and continued to provide certain financial 
support for observatory operation and maintenance. The Institution 
continued working to encourage outside investigators and their 
institutions to organize a consortium or plan for the future scientific 
and financial operation of the facility. 

Observations with the solar tower telescopes continued under 
memoranda of understanding between Carnegie and UCLA (for the 
150-foot telescope) and the University of Southern California (for 
the 60-foot telescope). Several of Carnegie's skilled mountain 
personnel were hired by these universities. The continuous, long- 
term observations of solar velocity and magnetism, obtained at the 
150-foot tower telescope since early in this century, were thus 
extended under the supervision of UCLA's Roger K. Ulrich. The 
historical continuity and accuracy of the Mount Wilson data are 
invaluable for studying the dynamics of the Sun's interior through 
new analysis methods, such as those of helioseismology. Analysis of 
intensive solar oscillation data — obtained recently at the 60-foot 
tower every 40 seconds for up to 11.5 hours per day in certain 
periods — yielded estimates of the rotation of a large part of the 
Sun's interior. 

The 60-inch telescope remained dedicated to nightly observations 
of stellar magnetic and activity cycles, under partial support of the 
National Science Foundation. More than 165,000 independent 
observations of some 2,000 main-sequence and giant stars are 
contained in the computer-based archive, covering the years 1966- 
1986. 

It seems likely that the history of astronomy on Mount Wilson, 
as well as the role of the solar and solar-stellar physicists as a link 
between astronomy and the earth and planetary sciences, is far 
from over. 



72 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

The Accumulation of the Planets 

It is clear to those of us working on the formation of 
the solar system that... only a few engaged in this 
quest are likely to be present when the goal is reached. 
This need not lead to despair. There are many specific 
problems of the kind discussed here that must be 
addressed before a well-ordered understanding of 
planetary formation can be realized. Knowledge that 
there are these well-defined steps to be completed can 
give substance to our individual efforts, and offset 
the tendency to climb our personal Mount Pisgah and 
proclaim too strongly our individual vision of the 
distant Promised Land. 

George W. Wetherill 

July 1986 

Attempts to understand the formation of the solar system are 
proceeding from two directions. One approach, taken by Alan Boss 
and others, starts with observational evidence of star formation in 
giant molecular clouds and uses physical theory to work forward in 
time. The other approach is to start with the present system of 
planets and go backward, one step at a time, to identify plausible 
prior conditions. A satisfactory understanding of the entire problem 
requires that the two approaches meet at some point, though at 
present a gap remains that can be bridged only qualitatively. 

This year, DTM director George Wetherill and Glen Stewart of 
the University of Virginia, using the second approach, have worked 
backward from the late stage of planetary accumulation where 
bodies roughly of lunar size merged to form the terrestrial planets — 
the stage studied by Wetherill in past years. The recent objective 
of Wetherill and Stewart was to evaluate how these lunar-sized 
bodies may themselves have evolved. 

The venture required a theoretical technique very different from 
that used by Wetherill earlier. The number of accumulating bodies 
is so enormous that it would be impossible to follow the evolution of 
the individual bodies by techniques of orbital dynamics. Instead, 
Wetherill and Stewart treated the system in a more collective way, 
making use of techniques adopted from the kinetic theory of gases. 

Using this approach, Stewart developed new expressions for the 
velocity evolution of a swarm of small planetesimals. The theoretical 
basis for his expressions is much stronger than those used by 
others studying the problem. Wetherill then used these expressions 
as the basis for a numerical method for calculating the velocity and 
mass evolution of a growing swarm of small bodies. 

In his numerical simulations of this early stage of growth, 
Wetherill encountered a bifurcation. One possible path of growth 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 73 

agrees well with that found by earlier investigators — Safronov and 
Hayashi, whose work was the starting point for Wetherill's past 
studies of late-stage accumulation. The other possible path is that 
of a runaway growth, where within each of a number of small 
concentric zones, growth is dominated by a single body, which 
swallows up all the smaller bodies capable of making a close 
encounter with it. 

The later stages of this runaway are not amenable to either of 
the two theoretical approaches now available, and the final outcome 
of the runaway cannot be quantitatively determined. However, 
plausible qualitative arguments can be presented indicating that the 
final stage of accumulation will involve even larger bodies than had 
been employed in Wetherill's earlier work. The number of these 
large bodies is considerably greater than the known number of final 
terrestrial planets. Therefore the collection of these bodies into 
planets will still be dominated by giant impacts, as Wetherill 
suggested earlier. 

Mineralogy at High Pressure 

A new chapter unfolded this year in the development at the 
Geophysical Laboratory of methods and equipment for studying 
materials at high pressure. Investigator J. S. Xu (from the People's 
Republic of China) and staff members Ho-kwang Mao and Peter 
Bell obtained sustained pressures of 5.5 megabars in a diamond- 
anvil cell apparatus. They succeeded in measuring this pressure 
using the ruby fluorescence effect, previously thought to be unusable 
above 2 megabars. 

The new diamond-anvil designs were based in part on a laser- 
probe, finite-element stress analysis of the anvils. Actual stress- 
distribution measurements in three dimensions were begun during 
computer-controlled experiments with a new microfocus laser 
diode-array spectrograph. (The latter is designed to measure 
simultaneously the Raman effect and the thermal black body 
radiation of samples at high pressure and temperature.) 

The new capability with the diamond cell means that experiments 
are now possible at static pressures equal to those at the Earth's 
center (3.5 megabars). Experiments can also be done at upper- 
mantle conditions of the major planets — above about 3 megabars in 
the case of Jupiter, for example. (The pressure at Jupiter's center 
is perhaps 100 megabars.) 

The next development in high-pressure technology is likely to 
involve the application of controlled high temperatures inside the 
diamond-anvil cell. To duplicate the most extreme conditions in the 
Earth, temperatures on the order of 7000K will be required at 3.5 
megabars. It may be possible to generate these conditions by 
internal resistance and laser-beam heating, but because of the 



74 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

intense heat the conditions probably cannot be held stably for 
longer than several minutes. The Geophysical Laboratory investiga- 
tors are now developing faster observing techniques so that heating 
damage to the diamond anvils and other components of the apparatus 
can be avoided. 

Experimental Results. Seeking to determine the phase of iron 
that would be stable under conditions of the Earth's core, Bell and 
Mao have been studying the compressibility of iron. They have 
recently investigated the e-7 phase transition curve, a fundamental 
observation critical in predicting the melting point and all other 
properties of the outer and inner cores. They observed the transition 
in a diamond cell apparatus, heated by internal resistance to a 
maximum temperature of 1673K at maximum pressure of 360 
kilobars — the highest pressures and temperatures at which the 
transition has been observed in static high-pressure experiments. 
The new results suggest that the iron of the inner core may 
have the e (hep, hexagonal closest packed) crystal structure. 
However, postdoctoral fellow Andrew Jephcoat, with Peter Olson 
of Johns Hopkins University, has shown that the density of the 
inner core is significantly less than estimates based on pure hep 
iron. 

In high-pressure experiments at room temperature, Mao, Xu, 




Ho-kwang Mao and Russell Hemley use the recently installed optical spectrometer 
at the Geophysical Laboratory for making Raman measurements on minute 
amounts of material contained in a high-pressure diamond-anvil cell. 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 75 

and Bell measured the compressibilities and densities of two 
garnets — andradite and grossularite. Their purpose was to evaluate 
seismically derived models of the mantle's transition zone (depth 
670 km). In order to obtain the most reliable interpretation of data 
at 150 kilobars — the pressure existing at the "garnetite zone" at 
the center of the transition zone — the investigators obtained data 
to 300 kilobars. They found that the presence of andradite tends to 
decrease the compressibility and increase the density. As the 
grossularite component is increased, the compressibility is unchanged 
but the density is decreased. Their results made it possible to 
determine the effects of calcium, aluminum, and ferric iron on the 
physical properties of garnets at the pressures studied. 

Several programs of experiment at the Laboratory explored the 
vibrational properties of materials under infrared or x-ray excitation 
at high pressure. Studies of forsterite, fayalite, and 7-Fe 2 Si0 4 by 
Anne Hofmeister, Mao, Bell, and Thomas Hoering have shown that 
thermodynamic properties at high pressure (e.g., heat capacity and 
Gruneisen parameter) can be accurately calculated from the vibration 
spectra. The results were used to derive phase diagrams, which 
proved consistent with results of phase equilibria experiments. An 
olivine-spinel geotherm for the mantle agreeing with seismic 
derivations has been reached from these studies. Postdoctoral 
fellow Russell Hemley, with Hofmeister and others, obtained the 
first definitive vibrational spectra (Raman and infrared) of stishovite, 
the highest pressure phase known of Si0 2 . Results resolved past 
controversies as to the lattice dynamics, structure, and heat 
capacity of this important mantle mineral. These and other ventures 
offer critical data needed to formulate general theoretical models of 
the inner Earth, to be tested by data from seismic and geochemical 
observations as well as in further experiments. 

Using Synchrotron Radiation with the Diamond Cell. In recent 
years, synchrotrons have become important sources of radiation in 
the x-ray wavelengths. These machines, which produce radiation 
through the deflection of high-energy electrons in a magnetic field, 
have low beam divergence, a uniform wavelength spectrum, and a 
high intensity. In contrast, conventional laboratory sources of x- 
rays produce a divergent beam where most of the relatively low 
intensity is concentrated at a few discrete wavelengths. Because 
synchrotron sources are rare, access to them is usually obtained 
through peer-reviewed proposals, like those required by government 
granting agencies. As members of the Powder Diffraction Partici- 
pating Research Team at the National Synchrotron Light Source, 
Brookhaven National Laboratory — the group that constructed this 
beam line — Geophysical Laboratory scientists have priority access 
to the Brookhaven facility. 

Since the early days of x-ray scattering experiments, the technique 
has been to subject a high-quality single crystal to a primary x-ray 



76 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

beam. The radiation scattered by the sample, which may also 
comprise a powder of small crystallites in random orientation, is 
recorded by a counter system. Crystal structure is then deduced. 
When using synchrotron-generated radiation, the low beam 
divergence results in instrumental resolution as much as ten times 
that of a conventional x-ray spectrometer. Closely spaced details 
can be resolved with much less ambiguity. Further, synchrotron 
radiation makes it possible to solve the unknown structures of 
geological systems where it is difficult to grow relatively large 
single crystals, needed for the older method. 

In one mode of operation, the uniform wavelength distribution of 
the synchrotron enables a complete beam spectrum to be focused 
upon a sample. A solid-state detector analyzes a small angular 
range of the scattered beam. Thus, the entire spectrum can be 
collected at one time, the experiment time is reduced, and only a 
small volume of sample is required. This mode is especially useful 
for experiments with the diamond cell, where the region of uniform 
pressure is quite small. 

Looking ahead to future synchrotron experiments at high 
temperature and at those very high pressures where only a small 
sample can be accommodated in the diamond cell, several Geophysical 
Laboratory investigators recently conducted trials at Brookhaven. 
Samples of silicon, gold, iron, and ruby were studied to obtain 
compressibility data and establish calibration scales. Pressures 
were calibrated by lattice-parameter measurements and by x-ray- 
induced ruby fluorescence. The trials reached a maximum pressure 
of 1.4 megabars, and the investigators concluded that the promise 
of synchrotron radiation for diamond cell experiments was indeed 
great. 

Plate Subduction: Seismological Studies 

The Earth's continuing evolution is seen in the production of new 
crust and lithosphere at the midocean ridges. The new material, 
formed into rigid plates, moves away from the ridges at speeds of 
several centimeters per year. Where plates collide, the motion of 
one turns downward, and its material returns to the interior by the 
process known as subduction. Seismologists and geochemists at 
DTM seek better understanding of subduction processes, in part 
because subduction regions produce most of the world's volcanos 
and larger earthquakes. But subduction regions and processes are 
also of scientific importance for the remarkable evidence they offer 
as to the nature and activity of the deeper Earth. 

As an oceanic plate plunges beneath an older, lighter plate at a 
subduction zone, large seismic events occur at relatively shallow 
depths (70 km or less), sometimes producing devastating earthquakes. 
Two kinds of mechanisms cause most such events: (1) the initial 
bending at the trench causes tensional faulting in the relatively 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 77 

stiff, subducting plate, or (2) interaction between the descending 
plate and the adjacent lithosphere causes thrust, or compressional, 
faulting. 

Less well understood are the mechanisms of deeper earthquakes, 
which have been seen to persist to depths as great as 670 km. 
These events, however, are helpful in illuminating the nature of the 
descending plates, or slabs. The locations of slab-related earthquakes 
can indicate a slab's geometry, and the associated seismic radiation 
patterns tell of the modes of stress release and allow estimates of 
stress distribution within the slab. Seismic signals from unrelated 
earthquakes can also reveal the presence of a very deep slab: a slab 
is much cooler (by 500-1000°) than the surrounding mantle, and 
therefore exhibits higher seismic velocities and lesser attenuation, 
i.e., a detectable seismic signature. 

Major questions abound. Why is there a gap in the distribution of 
earthquakes beneath South America between 300 and 500 kilometers 
of depth? Do slabs descend deeper into the mantle than the 670-km 
cutoff? Are descending slabs part of a mantle-wide circulation of 
heat and material (convection), or is the mantle above 670 km 
essentially isolated from below? 

Slab Penetration beneath Peru. The unusual geometry of 
subduction beneath Peru provides an ideal opportunity to study the 
descending slab and the forces affecting it. Since 1965, investigators 
from DTM and the Universidad de San Agustin at Arequipa have 
deployed seismographs in the region and have acquired observations 
from thousands of events, most of them occurring at depths between 
50 and 300 km. From these data, Selwyn Sacks of DTM and 
Akira Hasegawa (Tohoku University, Japan) several years ago 
mapped the slab beneath Peru (see Year Book 81+ , p. 87). Beneath 
central Peru at depth of about 100 km, the subducting slab ceases 
its standard 30-degree angle of descent and proceeds horizontally. 
Then after about 300 km of horizontal travel, the slab again turns 
downward. But beneath southern Peru, this unusual horizontal 
path is not seen. Between the two regions, Sacks and Hasegawa 
showed, the slab is contorted but continuous; the zone of contortion 
is about 80 km wide. 

Seeking to explain this behavior, Sacks noted that the more 
northern region (central Peru), which has had no recent volcanic 
activity, exhibits very low heat flow, so that the temperature of the 
South American plate overlying the slab is relatively low. The slab 
is potentially buoyant if it is sufficiently young and cool enough to 
retard the phase transformation to a denser configuration. In 
typical subduction, at sufficient temperature and pressure the 
basaltic crust of the slab transforms to a denser form, eclogite, 
which probably represents the most dense phase in the upper 
mantle. As a result, the slab becomes denser than its surroundings. 
Sacks proposed that beneath central Peru, the slab is buoyant 



78 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

because the basalt-eclogite phase change is retarded by the low 
temperature at the base of the overlying continent. Normal 
subduction resumes where the basalt-eclogite change finally occurs 
farther east. 

Research associate John Schneider and Sacks are studying focal 
mechanisms of these same intermediate-depth earthquakes as a 
means of investigating the forces associated with the contorted 
region; the pattern of stress release gives a measure of the stress 
field within the slab. The special geometry of the region makes it 
possible to distinguish between alternative models for forces acting 
on a subducted slab. 

One popular model explains the seismicity and stresses by the 
bending of the subducted slab. Where the bend is concave upwards, 
compressive forces occur near the upper surface; tensional forces 
will occur for the opposite flexure. Beneath central Peru, between 
the early 30-degree dip and the horizontal section at 100-km depth, 
there is a substantial concave-upward bend. Farther east, the 
resubducting slab has opposite curvature, i.e. concave downwards. 
But in both regions the focal mechanisms were found to indicate 
plate tension; i.e., the new data indicate that bending is not a 
dominant seismogenic factor. 

Thermal expansion in the slab has also been proposed as a 
possible source of stress. (Investigators in Japan have explored this 
hypothesis in extensive models to explain the unusual seismicity 
beneath Japan.) Temperature patterns beneath Peru allow a test of 
the concept. In central Peru, the horizontal slab remains relatively 
cool, as its upper surface is isolated from the hot, mobile astheno- 
sphere. To the south, in the "normal" subduction region, the slab 
contacts this hot material below about 70 km. If thermal effects 
were dominant, the seismicity should be higher in the southern 
region. But if anything, the reverse is the case. Thus thermal 
expansion seems to have no role in the region. 

Sacks and Schneider conclude that the dominant mechanism for 
producing stresses in the slab is the gravitational "tugging" of the 
slab itself. This conclusion is supported primarily by analysis of the 
transverse forces and the focal mechanisms, both in the contorted 
region and to the north. The crucial finding is that the forces 
outside the contorted region correspond not to the local geometry 
but to the force associated with long-term sinking in the south. All 
forces point toward the gravity potential well beneath southern 
Peru (see Fig. 16). Thus the sustained pull from gravity is the 
overriding factor; the seismicity is not attributable to the high 
strain caused by bending and contortion, which by lowering viscosity 
decreases the earthquake potential. 

The absence of earthquake activity below 300 km in Peru does 
not mean that the slab fails to penetrate beneath this depth. 
Downward tension is still seen at 300 km, so that there must be 
gravitational pull from below (and slab material below to provide 




200 



300 



400 



Fig. 16. Subduction of the Nazca Plate beneath southern Peru. The arrows 
designate tension within the plate indicated by microseismicity. Force patterns 
within the zone of contortion beginning at about 80-km depth indicate that the 
dominant mechanism for subduction is the downward pull of the descending plate 
at lower depth. 



this pull). But because there is less slab beneath this depth to pull 
downward, there is less stress to produce seismic activity. Then, 
near the discontinuity at 670 km (which exists worldwide), the 
viscosity surrounding the slab increases, and the slab no longer 
sinks freely but is resisted. This reversal in stress direction produces 
a minimum-stress regime between 300 and 500 km, and explains 
the absence in seismicity between these depths. 

Sacks notes that if these results can be extended to other 
subduction zones, they may explain the global minimum in seismicity 
at similar intermediate depths. 

Studying Slabs at Great Depths. The study of slab penetration 
(or its absence) below 670 km entails the analysis of seismic waves 
whose travel is affected by the slab itself at depth. DTM's Paul 
Silver and Winston Chan have studied several unusual body waves 
produced by earthquakes just above 670 km in the northwestern 
Pacific and recorded by stations in North America. Silver and Chan 
detected multipathing — a phenomenon where a seismic signal 
takes various, slightly different paths from its place of origin to a 
given station. (The variations in wave travel result from some 
heterogeneity along the pathway.) The investigators determined 
that the feature accounting for the observed multipathing is localized 
in the lower mantle just beneath the earthquakes, and that the 
feature exhibits high seismic velocity. Silver and Chan believe that 



80 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

they are probably seeing evidence that the slab extends downward 
into the lower mantle to about 1,100 km. 

Silver and Chan are expanding the multipathing work to the 
study of slab penetration beneath South America; they hope 
to investigate the lower mantle beneath 670 km as well as the 
seismically inactive region between 300 and 500 km beneath Peru. 

The Great Chilean and Sumbawan Earthquakes. Interested in 
very large earthquakes and ways to predict them, and hopeful 
of insights into basic forces and motions within the Earth, Paul 
Silver has been applying unusual tools to the study of rupture 
characteristics of several major earthquakes. 

Silver and DTM predoctoral fellow Ines Cifuentes recently 
examined seismic data from the Great Chilean Earthquake of 
1960 — the largest earthquake ever recorded (magnitude 9.5). The 
event ruptured nearly a 1,000-km length of Chilean coastline. Some 
ten years ago, investigators elsewhere (from study of strain 
seismogram signals recorded at Caltech) proposed that the Chilean 
earthquake was preceded by a slow event, comparable in magnitude 
to the main event but of much longer duration. Now, using a 
recently developed technique, Cifuentes and Silver have examined 
free-oscillation data of the Earth in order to estimate the low- 
frequency (long-period) characteristics of the slow earthquake. The 
Earth's free oscillations are analogous to vibrations generated by 
striking a bell; their periods are the longest (up to one hour) of any 
earthquake radiation. The proposed slow earthquake precursor 
should have had a significant effect on the free oscillations. 

Silver and Cifuentes intensively analyzed more than 300 free- 
oscillation amplitudes, with periods in the range of from 200 to 
1,000 seconds, obtained at eight stations (most of them installed 
during the 1957 International Geophysical Year). The amplitudes in 
the 1-3 mHz band (300-1,000 seconds) were found to be consistent 
with the generally accepted picture of a 1,000-km-long rupture, slip 
of about 20 meters, and rupture velocity of 3 km/sec. 

The DTM investigators have found that the data in the 3-5 mHz 
band is not explained by the usual earthquake model and are now 
investigating the presence of another event. This event may be the 
proposed precursor and, if so, would indicate that the Great 
Chilean Earthquake of 1960 is not like other earthquakes. 

The Chilean earthquake resulted from severe relative motions 
between a subducted and a buoyant plate. In contrast, the Sumbawan 
earthquake of 1977 (magnitude 7.9), just seaward of the Java 
trench, resulted from tensional faulting within the descending slab. 
Scientists have disagreed whether the event represented a rupture 
from the bending of the slab just before its subduction or whether 
it represented a cracking of the entire slab — torn apart by the pull 
of the slab at greater depth. A determination of the extent of 
faulting should give the answer: if faulting occurred throughout the 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 81 

full 80-km thickness of the slab, then the entire slab must have 
broken apart. But if faulting occurred only to about 40 km, then 
mere bending would have been responsible. 

Collaborating with several colleagues at M.I.T., Silver examined 
the free-oscillation data between periods of 100 and 1,000 seconds. 
They found that the data could only be fit by models where faulting 
was primarily confined to the top half of the slab. 

Silver noted that only the use of the free-oscillation data, in 
particular the simultaneous consideration of the relatively broad 
band of 100-1,000 seconds, made possible the result. More- 
conventional seismic data is of course of interest; but because the 
event was so large, the body waves saturated nearly all the 
instruments of global networks. Silver noted, however, that the 
DTM broadband system, which has high dynamic range, obtained 
several unique on-scale recordings, which may provide keys for 
understanding the process of plate bending near the beginning of 
subduction. 

Sediment Subduction in Volcanic Arcs: Answers from 10 Be 

Ever since seismologists demonstrated that volcanic arcs like the 
Aleutians and the Andes are associated with zones of subduction, 
a major question has been whether oceanic sediments, as well as 
the oceanic crust on which they lie, are involved in subduction and 
associated magma formation. Are the sediments carried downward 
with the descending plate to depths of magma formation, where a 
fraction of the sediment enters the magma sources, eventually to 
reappear as surface lavas? Research over twenty years has led 
many scientists to believe that sediments probably are subducted 
beneath volcanic arcs, but there has been no certain evidence on 
the point; most geochemical tracers are subject to equivocal 
interpretation. 

One exception is the isotope 10 Be, which originates in the 
atmosphere through cosmic-ray bombardment of oxygen and 
nitrogen and is carried by rainfall to the oceans, where it subse- 
quently builds up in bottom sediments. Its short half-life (1.5 x 10 6 
years) means that only very recent processes and very young 
sediments can impart a 10 Be signature to volcanic arc materials, 
thus avoiding some of the ambiguity associated with other 
geochemical tracers. And because the source is atmospheric, 
mantle-derived rocks such as midocean ridge and oceanic island 
basalts contain essentially no 10 Be (<0.5 x 10 6 atoms/gram, vs. the 
5,000 x 10 6 atoms/gram typical of oceanic sediments). Thus, the 
incorporation of even a small amount of young, oceanic sedimentary 
matter into a magma source should produce measurable 10 Be 
concentrations. 

From measurements of nearly 200 samples at the University of 
Pennsylvania's tandem Van de Graaff accelerator, DTM investigators 



82 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

and their colleagues at the University have concluded that volcanic 
arc lavas are, in fact, the only volcanic rock type that contains 10 Be. 
10 Be concentrations in arc lavas range from 0.1 to 24 x 10 6 atoms/ 
gram. Some arcs, such as the Aleutians and Chile, exhibit a very 
narrow range in values. Others, most notably Central America, 
Japan, and the Kurile-Kamchatka arc, show wide ranges. The 10 Be 
data, when coupled with geological, geophysical, geochemical, and 
sedimentological information for each of the arcs and associated 
subduction trenches, provides an excellent basis for studying the 
sediment incorporation process. DTM investigators Julie Morris, 
Fouad Tera, and Louis Brown are making important progress 
in this work, and they are developing a quantitative model explaining 
10 Be content in lavas. 

An uncertainty has been whether sediments are actually subducted 
to depth beneath volcanic arcs or whether arc lavas include 
sedimentary material acquired by assimilation when rising as 
magma through near-surface sediment layers. Measurements from 
southern Chile allowed Morris and Tera to rule out assimilation 
during ascent, since all near-surface sediments in Chile are too old 
to contain 10 Be. Their result is the strongest possible evidence 
indicating that sediment is subducted downward into the Earth's 
mantle at zones of subduction. 

The appearance of 10 Be in lavas requires that there be enough 
10 Be in the sediments to produce the observed concentration after 
only a small percentage of the sediment is mixed into the magma 
source material. Because of its short half-life, the 10 Be content of a 
sediment is dominated by the last 8-10 million years of sedimentation. 
It is therefore reasonable to look for correlations between 10 Be in a 
lava and measures of recent sedimentation. (Heavy recent 
sedimentation offshore should be accompanied by high 10 Be readings 
in the associated lavas.) Initial data seem to indicate that this is 
indeed the case (Fig. 17), except that samples from Mexico 
consistently contain little 10 Be despite high recent sedimentation. 
(Geological evidence shows that much of the sediment fed into the 
trench in Mexico is being scraped off and not subducted, perhaps 
explaining the low 10 Be concentrations.) 

The DTM investigators are trying to evaluate quantitatively 
other factors explaining why sediments appear to be subducted in 
some arcs but not in others. Of special interest are the physical 
parameters governing plate subduction and the fate of the associated 
sediments. One suggestion is that young slabs, which are hot, 
buoyant, and thus resistant to subduction, are less likely to carry 
down sediment than are older slabs. This may be true in Mexico, 
where the arc is being underthrust by a young, 10-million-year 
slab. But in Chile, where the age of the slab varies from 40 million 
years in the north to 10 million years in the south, 10 Be is measured 
in similar concentrations all along the arc. 

Other physical processes may affect 10 Be distribution. Both in 






o 
o 

o 



PQ 



8 


1 1 1 | 1 1 1 | 1 1 


1 1 ' 


l_ 


_ A CENTRAL AMERICA 




- 


6 









4 


_ A ALEUTIANS 







2 


_ PERU a 

A A JAPAN 

A CHILE 







n 


- SUNDA 

MARIANA A | | 

* 1 1 *l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


MEXICO 

i 1 i 


A- 
1 



20 40 60 

PLIO-PLEISTOCENE SEDIMENTATION RATE, M/MA 

Fig. 17. In general, where recent sedimentation is heavy, 
associated arc lavas exhibit high 10 Be content. Shown here, 
average 10 Be concentrations vs. recent (Plio-Pleistocene) 
sedimentation rates, measured outboard of the offshore trenches. 
Sediments in Mexico are scraped away from the subducting plate, 
perhaps explaining the anomalous readings in that region. 



Japan and Chile, there are localized sites of very high 10 Be 
concentration. These sites lie above topographic irregularities in 
the subducting slab which have produced down-dropped sediment- 
filled basins. These basins may provide the means for enhanced 
sediment subduction, a result that is important for models of 
subduction zones. 

A major question in arc petrology is the fate of the subducted 
slab. Does it melt a little? Does it melt a lot? Is it simply devolatil- 
ized? Unlike most other elements, 10 Be is uniquely associated with 
the slab and hence may ultimately yield some insight into what 
happens to the slab at depth. In a previous comparison of 10 Be data 
with those of an Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope study of Chilean lavas, 
Morris showed that 10 Be is decoupled from these other isotopes, 
suggesting that the 10 Be transfer mechanism from the slab may be 
complicated. Seeking to learn constraints on the transfer process, 
Tera and Geophysical Laboratory staff member Bj<#rn My sen are 
preparing a series of Be-partitioning studies between diopside and 
water-rich fluid at mantle temperatures and pressures. 

Another important factor in determining 10 Be concentrations in 
arc lavas is the time required for transport of the sediments from 
the offshore trench where subduction begins, to the zone of magma 
generation at depth. The subduction time varies from about 2 
million years in Central America and the Kuriles to about 11 million 
years in the Lesser Antilles. This variation, which corresponds to 
six half-lives, must be accommodated in any analysis of 10 Be 
concentrations in lavas. 




300 



Maximum Subducted Be-10 



Fig. 18. The DTM investigators are developing a model 
predicting 10 Be concentrations in volcanic arc lavas. Shown here 
are theoretical maximum values of 10 Be concentration (horizontal 
scale) in various lavas, calculated primarily from offshore 
sedimentation rates and decay during the subduction process. 
Measured values for various arcs appear as vertical lines: CA, 
Central America; Ku, Kuriles; C, Chile; Ka, Kamchatka; P, Peru; 
Me, Mexico; Al, Aleutians; J, Japan; S, Sunda; Ma, Marianas. 
(Dashed segments show where a single reading lies anomalously 
outside the range of all others.) The diagonal lines represent 
amounts of sediment incorporated in the lavas, expressed 
as percentages. Note that the model successfully predicts a lack 
of 10 Be in the Mariana and Sunda arcs, and explains the 
difference in 10 Be content in the Kurile and Kamchatka segments 
of the Russian arc. In the Marianas, for example, if as much as 
10% of the lava material were from sediments, the measured 
concentration of 10 Be would not be appreciably altered. 



Application of the quantitative modeling by the DTM investigators 
is illustrated in Fig. 18. The model uses the relationship between 
10 Be concentration and sedimentation rate (as in Fig. 17) along with 
10 Be decay during subduction, to predict the maximum possible 
10 Be contents of various arc lavas. Several factors that may be 
important in detail are ignored, but the model does a remarkably 
good job of predicting which arcs should show low 10 Be concentrations 
and which should have high concentrations. 

Morris et al. conclude that although 10 Be may be useful for 
studying the mechanical processes of sediment subduction, such 
processes are generally of secondary importance in accounting for 
10 Be concentrations of arc lavas. But despite uncertainties in the 
detailed interpretation, the results provide clear evidence that arc 
lavas include a small percentage of sedimentary material, intro- 
duced through subduction. It is theoretically possible that an atom- 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 

by-atom accountability through the different parts of the production- 
sedimentation-subduction-eruption cycle can some day be made. 
Thus, 10 Be may ultimately be useful for detailed study of that cycle, 
as well as of other processes in ocean sedimentation and bottom 
transport. 

Geochemical Investigations of the Inner Earth 

The Mantle beneath the Oceans. Chemical and isotopic data from 
volcanic rocks erupted at the surface reveal details of their mantle 
source regions. For example, basalts erupted in ocean basins within 
the past 180 million years have varied Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic 
compositions — evidence of long-lasting >l-2 billion-year-old) 
heterogeneities in the mantle. Geochemists are applying detailed 
examinations of the chemistry of these heterogeneities to such 
problems as the nature and depth of mantle convection, the identity 
of specific reservoirs in the mantle, how heterogeneities are 
distributed in the mantle, and how they are related to larger earth 
processes. 



85 




Sea floor samples are recovered by dredging from regions of 
volcanic island chains. Shown here, dredge assembly on the 
fantail of the RV Thomas G. Thompson, at sea in the Mariana 
Volcanic Arc. Dredge is lowered overboard and dragged along 
sea floor. (Photo by DTM geochemist Julie Morris.) 



86 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

DTM staff member Steven Shirey, in collaboration with investi- 
gators at the University of North Carolina, Charlotte, and at the 
Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, has recently studied a 
region south of the Azores, near the intersection of the mid- 
Atlantic ridge and the Oceanographer transform fault. The tholeiites 
analyzed were generated by spreading at the midocean ridge, and 
most represent the products of mantle upwelling at a single spot 
over the last million years. Using closely spaced samples collected 
by other investigators directly on the ocean floor with the Alvin 
submersible, and combining trace-element data with various isotope 
measurements, the group has been able to identify the distribution 
of heterogeneities on the small scale. 

From measurements of trace elements and Sr, Nd, and Pb 
isotopes, Shirey and colleagues have divided the samples into three 
distinct groups. Groups A and B are similarly enriched over Group 
C in the incompatible trace elements. There is, however, remarkably 
large dissimilarity in 143 Nd/ 144 Nd and 206 Pb/ 204 Pb among all the 
groups. In general, the isotope data require that components have 
originated from three portions of the mantle that had been chemically 
distinct for hundreds of millions of years. 

The Groups B and C samples can be interpreted within a 
previously proposed pattern of mantle heterogeneity in the region — 
one involving variable degrees of mixing betweeen normal midocean 
ridge basalt and enriched mantle having Azores-like isotopic 
composition. However, Group A remains isotopically unique, having 
lower 143 Nd/ 144 Nd and 206 Pb/ 204 Pb relative to values of the Groups B 
and C samples. This feature, along with relatively low 207 Pb/ 204 Pb 
and high 208 Pb/ 204 Pb, rule out the involvement (as source for Group 
A) of mantle enriched by the recycling of continental or pelagic 
sediments, or enriched mantle characteristic of most other ocean- 
island sources. 

Combining the isotope data with key trace-element ratios (e.g., 
Ce/Sm, Ce/Zr, and Ba/Y), Shirey and colleagues find that the 
Group A material exhibits characteristics of the enriched subconti- 
nental mantle previously identified by DTM geochemists under the 
ancient Wyoming and southern African (Kaapvaal) cratons. The 
shape of the region on the ocean floor containing the Group A 
samples suggests that the mantle source may be an isolated "plum," 
which is being actively melted during upwelling at the midocean 
ridge (see Fig. 19). Since this region is not related to a strong 
ocean-floor bathymetric high or to an active ocean-island "hot spot," 
it must be a passive feature fundamentally different from an active 
plume. 

Shirey believes that this enriched mantle feature may have been 
removed from the colder subcontinental lithosphere by hotter 
mantle flow related either to subduction at a continental margin or 
to an upwelling plume. Either mechanism provides a way for the 
deeper parts of the cratons, heretofore considered a permanent 



35°00'W 



34°55'W 
t 1 — y-i r 




RDIO 



2km 



/ ALVIN Dives 
y* Dredges 

4 A GROUP 
•♦> B GROUP 
■ C GROUP 

*" r - 



35°IO'N 



35°05'N 



35°00'W 



34°55'W 



Fig. 19. Region of intersection of the mid- Atlantic ridge (double 
line) and Oceanographic transform area (dashed line), showing 
locations of samples studied by DTM geochemist Steven Shirey 
and colleagues. The area of the Group A samples, which Shirey 
believes are derived ultimately from subcontinental material, 
is encircled. Samples were obtained by the submersible Alvin 
(dive tracks shown). Shirey's study demonstrates how erupted 
materials contain chemical and isotopic clues to deeper earth 
phenomena. 



part of the lithosphere, to have been eroded from below. The result 
is important because, as Wetherill notes, it indicates that subconti- 
nental lithosphere, although durable, can be removed and mixed 
in with the other "flotsam and jetsam" that increasingly seem 
to characterize the suboceanic mantle. 

The ability of passive heterogeneities to survive in the convecting 
mantle is poorly understood by geodynamicists. The Oceanographer 
transform area appears to provide an example of such survivability. 
If convection is an effective mixer of the mantle, as is generally 
supposed, then some mechanism for the recent transfer of old 
subcontinental mantle is needed to explain how the isotopic age of 
the heterogeneity could exceed its expected lifetime in the convecting 
mantle. 

The detailed approach exemplified in this study is important to 
an understanding of the deeper crustal and mantle processes 
controlling the chemistry of materials erupted at the surface. 
Shirey writes that "an understanding of heterogeneity on the small 
scale is fundamental to the interpretation of heterogeneity on larger 
scales." 



The Crust-Mantle Transition. The geochemical characteristics of 
the crust-mantle boundary, along with the petrologic compositions 
either side of it, are poorly known. Direct study of the transition 
region requires access to material once buried at depths as great as 



88 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

30-60 km. Such material is found at the surface in a few places, 
where forces resulting from plate motion have overturned parts of 
the lithosphere, as in the Alps. More-widespread samples from the 
lower crust and upper mantle, however, are available only as 
fragments (xenoliths) incorporated during the ascent of some alkalic 
magmas. Potassium-rich volcanic rocks commonly carry such 
xenoliths, and because these lavas move quickly to the surface, the 
fragments remain intact, equilibrate minimally with the host 
magma, and can be studied in detail. The Four Corners area of the 
southwestern United States 25-50 million years ago underwent a 
period of potassic volcanism. 

DTM postdoctoral fellow Sonia Esperanga has studied a series of 
xenolith samples from the Camp Creek locality in central Arizona. 
She hoped to obtain evidence as to the timing and nature of the 
igneous and metamorphic processes modifying the crust just above 
the mantle transition. 

She found that although the xenoliths vary substantially in bulk 
composition, they point toward a lower-crustal assemblage largely 
consistent with seismic data. Her petrographic analyses and isotope 
and trace-element geochemistry reveal a complex history of 
enrichment and depletion at various times. The xenoliths are from 
fundamentally ancient rocks — about 2 billion years in age — differing 
from more-surficial rocks in chemical and mineralogical compositions. 
The xenoliths exhibit the effects of complex and continuing 
metamorphic processes, such as dehydration, extraction of rubidium, 
and a lowering in the ratio of light-rare-earth to middle-rare-earth 
elements. The work demonstrates that the lower crust sampled is 
basaltic in composition and that it has undergone several episodes 
of re-equilibration with percolating magmas and fluids in the past 
two billion years. 

Evolution of the Continents. The extremely dynamic state of the 
early Earth has resulted in the loss of direct evidence from when 
the Earth formed, 4.5 billion years ago, to when the ancient 
continental nuclei, or cratons, formed, about 3.5 billion years ago. 
Obtaining and interpreting the geological record associated with 
craton formation are therefore of special importance not only 
intrinsically but also for evidence of events during the earlier 1 
billion years of earth history. 

Staff member Richard Carlson of DTM and visiting investigator 
Allan H. Wilson of the University of Natal are applying isotope 
geochemical techniques to material of the Kaapvaal craton in 
southern Africa. They show that the craton grew during the period 
from 3.5 to 3.2 billion years ago by the serial addition of greenstone 
belts to the south, culminating in the Nondweni sequence of 
volcanic rocks. They draw the important conclusion that these 
greenstone belts formed near the old continental core, if not 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 89 

actually right on its margin, by processes very similar to continental- 
margin (i.e., subduction-zone-related) volcanism today. 

These "addition" events, however, are distinct from the earlier 
events forming the craton's core rocks — the Ancient Gneiss Complex. 
Geochemical and isotopic characteristics of core material suggest 
that the core's origin is not related to subduction-caused volcanism, 
but rather to the rapid recycling and remelting of mafic and 
ultramafic volcanic rocks. Perhaps the best modern analogy would 
be a place like Iceland, where some 10-15% of the exposed rocks 
are "granite" — probably originating by remelting of hydrated mafic 
rocks in the Iceland volcanic pile. 

The work of Carlson and Wilson supports the following model for 
the origin and evolution of the Kaapvaal craton: (1) production of 
large volumes of basaltic-to-komatiitic lavas perhaps over a large 
mantle plume, (2) contemporaneous hydration and remelting of 
mafic rocks to form a significant volume of granitoid rocks, which 
ultimately cause the volcanic pile to become buoyant enough to 
resist subduction, and (3) initiation of subduction along the borders 
of this continental core, leading to its subsequent growth over 
several hundred million years by processes similar to those now 
operating in the Andes. 

Experimental Studies on Crust and Mantle Processes 

It is imperative that laboratory study undertaken in 
the service of the various branches of geology should 
become commensurate in scope with the geological 
problems which it seeks to solve. 

Arthur L. Day, Director 

Geophysical Laboratory 

Year Book 9 (1910) 

Arthur Day, the founding director of the Geophysical Laboratory, 
believed that the Laboratory should take strong leadership in 
converting geology from a descriptive to a quantitative science. 
Day envisioned that the Laboratory should take possession of the 
middle ground between geology on the one hand and physics and 
chemistry on the other; an analogy existed among the astrophysicists, 
who had recently brought the methods of physics to the study of 
the stars. 

Today, the hallmark of the Geophysical Laboratory remains in 
experimental investigation. The range of topics is wide, reflecting 
the varied interests of the staff and the common goal of understanding 
fundamental earth processes. Although experimental work is often 
designed to complement theoretical and field evidence, every study 
in large part entails the acquisition or application of laboratory 
data. 



90 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

Formation of Layered Intrusions and Flood Basalts. T. Neil 
Irvine of the Geophysical Laboratory has for many years focused 
his attention on layered igneous intrusions — chamberlike bodies of 
rock formed by the cooling of magma at relatively shallow depths in 
the continental crust. In his recent research he has studied the 
mechanisms whereby such magmas have been produced in the 
upper mantle and emplaced in the crust. His present analysis 
combines insights from his laboratory studies on density currents in 
fluid media with geological and geophysical observations of a large 
region surrounding the Muskox Intrusion in northwestern Canada 
(Fig. 20). 

The Muskox Intrusion has been exposed at the surface by erosion 
over an area measuring about 125 x 12 kilometers, where it is 
seen to occupy a troughlike chamber. Gravity data indicate that it 
extends northwest from this area, beneath its roof rocks and 
younger cover, for another 300 kilometers (along the line AB on 
Fig. 20). The Intrusion is closely associated with the Coppermine 
River flood basaltic lavas, which extend across it and have an 
estimated volume of 140,000 cubic kilometers. It is also affiliated 
with the Mackenzie diabase dike swarm, which consists of thousands 
of basaltic dikes, typically a few meters to tens of meters wide and 
several kilometers long, extending like a fan to the southeast across 
a major part of northern Canada. 

Irvine proposes that these magmas were the joint products of a 
large, hot, up welling gravity current that flowed southward in the 
upper mantle beneath the Coppermine region, as part of the 
Precambrian mantle convection system. A map of the apparent 
extent of the current is shown in Fig. 20; a block diagram illustrating 
its probable shape and the inferred nature of the processes specifically 
involved in formation of the Muskox Intrusion appears in Fig. 21. 

By Irvine's analysis, the mantle current originated several 
hundred kilometers to the northeast of Muskox in a region where 
other workers have proposed that a new ocean basin was opened 
by plate tectonic processes about 1.2 billion years ago. From there, 
the current flowed as a hot, plastic mass on an arcuate path 
extending beneath Muskox and expanding to the southeast on the 
trend of the Mackenzie dike swarm (see expanding arcs #1-7, Fig. 
20). The magmas were melted within the hot current in response to 
the release of pressure accompanying its upwelling. 

A key aspect of Irvine's concept is that Muskox and Coppermine 
River magmas were fed from specific "magma release centers" 
located at the apexes of clefts in the hot-current front (see the 
clefts in arcs #3, 4, and 5 in Fig. 20, and the magma release center 
in Fig. 21). Such clefts are a common feature of laboratory density 
currents, where they form because some of the dense mobile 
material invaded by the upwelling current is initially trapped above 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 



91 



Postulated Asthenospheric 
Flow Features 



o 
o 



<G 



Path of magma 
release center 

•Hot front, 
with streamlines 



*^> ••••Occluded hot front 
*'••..;•• • Axis of downwelling 



100 

i 



200 km 

i 



50 iOOmi 
_i i 



PALEOZOIC 
~^J Sediments 



HADRYNIAN 

Shale, carbonates, 
sandstone, basalt 
AN 

Muskox Intrusion 

Plateau basalt 
(Coppermine R., Ekalulia) 

Dolomite, sandstone 
(Dismal Lakes, Parry Bay) 

Sandstone, shale, dolomite 
'(Hornby Bay, Ellice R.,TinneyC) 

APHEBIAN 




:::t + i Granitic rocks, acidic volcanics, 
metamorphic rocks 
(Bear Province craton) 



APHEBIAN AND ARCHEAN 



Granitic and metamorphic rocks 
(Churchill Province craton) 
ARCHEAN 

Granitic and metamorphic rocks 
(Slave Province craton) 



Fault 




^ Clastic rocks, dolomite, volcanics 
(Coronation, Great Bear, Goulbur 



Fig. 20. Map of the regional geology around the Muskox Intrusion in the 
Canadian Northwest Territories. The Intrusion is exposed by erosion in the 
labeled area (125 x 12 km) shown in black; its subsurface part is defined by a 
large gravity anomaly extending to the northwest through B to A. The flow 
pattern of the upper mantle current proposed by T. Neil Irvine of the Geophysical 
Laboratory is shown by the succession of fronts numbered 1 to 7. He concludes 
that after yielding Muskox and the Coppermine River basalts, the current swept 
on to the southeast beneath the Slave and Churchill provinces and produced the 
Mackenzie diabase dike swarm (not shown). All these events occurred 1.2 billion 
years ago. 




Present day north 



Fig. 21. Block diagram illustrating Irvine's concept of how the Muskox 
Intrusion was emplaced. The magma is produced by melting in the asthenospheric 
hot current and is fed vertically to the intrusion from the magma release center 
(see text). Downwarping of the lithosphere and crust into the cleft in the hot front 
opens the space for the intrusion. 



the current in a gravitationally unstable position. The clefts then 
develop as escape routes through which this material can drain 
downward. Irvine suggests that such downwelling along a cleft 
beneath Muskox caused localized downwarping of the continental 
lithosphere and crust immediately above, ultimately producing the 
troughlike chamber of the intrusion by pulling down its floor (see 
Fig. 21). Concurrently, magma rose nearly vertically from the 
magma release center at the cleft apex and entered the intrusion, 
where it then flowed southward to fill the space being created by 
the downwarping. 

Irvine points out that a major gravity anomaly along the line AB 
may be regarded as a record of the path of the magma release 
center beneath the continental crust. However, this trend probably 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 93 

reflects not just the motion of the center, but also a southwesterly 
shifting of the lithosphere caused by the westward expansion and 
push of the current. This interpretation is consistent with paleo- 
magnetic data from the intrusion, flows, and dikes. These data 
indicate that the whole terrain was rotated 28 degrees counter- 
clockwise relative to an equatorial paleomagnetic pole position 
during the general time period when the rocks were formed. 

These concepts may have far-reaching significance because they 
are potentially applicable not only to other layered intrusions but 
also to other occurrences of flood basalt and other diabasic and 
basaltic dike swarms. 

Understanding Regional Metamorphism. Among penologists 
interested in the origins of rocks, there have been growing efforts 
to understand the physics of earth processes. One important 
question is whether the heat that causes metamorphism — the 
alteration of subsurface rocks to new mineral forms and textures — 
is transferred by conduction or by convection. (Is the thermal 
energy for metamorphism conducted through the atoms and molecules 
of the surrounding rock, or is it carried in the movement of hot, 
convecting fluids?) 

Approaches to this fundamental question require a thorough 
grounding in petrology and geochemistry along with knowledge of 
geophysics and applied mathematics. The Geophysical Laboratory 
has assembled a group of investigators together possessing the 
needed breadth of expertise. 

Past theories of metamorphism are based on the assumption that 
heat transfer takes place primarily by conduction. Early thermal 
models rested on the wide belief that rocks at depths below 10 
kilometers were essentially impermeable to the transfer of material. 
Laboratory experiments on rocks recovered from drill cores showed 
low permeabilities. The experiments, however, did not bear on 
dynamical processes that might enhance permeability in a region, 
such as tectonic fracturing or devolatilization. However, the 
recognition of anomalous thermal structures, such as the metamorphic 
hot spots recently identified by Geophysical Laboratory postdoctoral 
fellow C. Page Chamberlain, has led to reappraisals of the heat 
conduction hypothesis. 

Chamberlain and colleagues have embarked on a study of fossil 
hydrothermal systems — networks of quartz-graphite veins at high 
pressure and temperature — in regional metamorphic belts. The 
vein networks are interesting because, as Chamberlain and staff 
member Douglas Rumble have shown, they are located in the heart 
of Chamberlain's metamorphic hot spots. Thus there is coincidence 
in location of anomalously high heat flow (the hot spots) and high 
fluid flow (the veins). Chamberlain and Rumble are investigating 
whether there is a cause-effect relationship between high fluid flow 
and high heat flow. If a link can be shown, a new generation of 



94 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

thermal models will be required to take into account convective as 
well as conductive heat transport in metamorphism. 

The research has proceeded on two lines. One is to establish the 
relative geologic age of vein networks in relation to the time of 
metamorphism by searching for evidence of chemical and isotopic 
interactions between veins and their surrounding metamorphic wall 
rocks. The other is to measure directly radiometric ages of vein 
minerals for comparison with the age of metamorphism. If it can be 
shown that the veins and metamorphic hot spots were contempora- 
neous, then the likelihood of a cause-and-effect relation would 
become strong. 

Chamberlain, Rumble, and staff member Thomas Hoering have 
carried out chemical and stable isotopic analyses of vein minerals 
and surrounding wall rocks. They have shown that graphic-quartz 
veins in the Bristol, New Hampshire, hot spot are surrounded by a 
halo of oxygen isotopic alteration to a distance of five centimeters 
into the wall rock. It appears likely that this isotope exchange took 
place during metamorphism, a conclusion strongly supported by the 
observed lack of mineralogical alteration of cordierite-bearing wall 
rocks. 

Rumble and postdoctoral fellow Russell Hemley are employing 
the laser micro-Raman spectrometer seeking evidence of vein- wall 
interactions. Analyses of ancient fluids trapped in veins and of 
those preserved in wall rocks will test whether vein formation and 
metamorphism took place simultaneously. (Semi-quantitative 
analyses of fluid inclusions in veins and wall rocks are possible for 
the species H 2 0, C0 2 , CH 4 , CO, H 2 , and N 2 .) 

Barbara Barreiro, a recent fellow at DTM and now at Dartmouth 
College, is measuring radiometric ages of vein minerals. She has 
analyzed U and Pb isotopes in zircons with euhedral overgrowths. 
Her preliminary results give an approximate age of 360 million 
years, in agreement with the generally accepted Devonian age of 
metamorphism in New England. 

Thus evidence continues to accumulate suggesting that convective 
heat transfer has played an important role in metamorphism. 

Kinetic Modeling of Fundamental Geological Processes. It 
should be possible to formulate quantitative models of fundamental 
earth processes. Such models, developed for the kinetic (i.e., the 
time-dependent, as opposed to the equilibrium) properties, would 
incorporate coupled processes, such as geochemical reaction kinetics 
and modes of heat and mass transfer. Besides their value for 
comprehending the larger dynamic evolution of crust and mantle, 
such models should be useful as practical, predictive tools. For 
example, if a kinetic pathway — how a system reached its present 
state — is shown to correlate with a particular magmatic or 
hydrothermal ore deposit, then field evidence of the same pathway 
elsewhere could provide guidance for future exploration. The 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 95 

current research of W. M. Keck Research Scholar Greg Muncill, 
who has worked at the Geophysical Laboratory since 1983, has 
been directed toward development of such coupled kinetic models. 

In one endeavor, Muncill is developing a relatively simple model 
describing crystal growth rates of minerals from silicate melts. 
He is testing the model by performing laboratory growth-rate 
studies on synthetic silicate melt systems. The experimentally 
derived growth rates are compared with rates predicted by the 
model, and if required, the model is then refined. The initial 
experiments (on a simplified system approximating a granite in 
composition) are encouraging. Simultaneously, Muncill is studying 
the phase compositions in the synthetic systems. (Knowledge of the 
equilibrium properties of systems is essential for establishing the 
direction of the reactions and the magnitude of "driving force" 
involved.) When combined with heat-transfer and mass-transfer 
models, the growth-rate model can be used in studying the evolution 
of natural magmatic systems. 

In another venture, Muncill and postdoctoral fellow Donald 
Dingwell are investigating the factors controlling dissolution rates 
of minerals in relatively simple, anhydrous silicate melts. An early 
conclusion is that dissolution rates in anhydrous granitic-type melts 
are much slower than rates determined by other workers for 
anhydrous basaltic-type melts. The investigators believe that 
volatiles dissolved in the melts will have a large effect on rates, 
especially in granitic systems, and they plan further experiments 
with volatile-bearing (H 2 and F) melts. 

Muncill and Chamberlain are using a model for the homogenization 
of concentration gradients in minerals to indicate the past cooling 
rates after peak metamorphism in a New England metamorphic 
region. The investigators plan to compare the indicated rates with 
cooling rates derived independently from geophysical models of 
heat flow. Muncill and Chamberlain envision that the procedure will 
enable them to develop the homogenization model into another tool 
for interpreting the thermal history of complex metamorphic 
regions. 

Muncill conceives that the information concerning the various 
independent processes can eventually be integrated into coupled, 
system- wide models, thereby facilitating understanding of the 
processes in the evolution of magmatic systems and their interrela- 
tions with the local environment. 

Structure and Property in Silicate Melts: Solubility Mechanisms. 
Traditionally, earth scientists seeking to understand magmatic 
processes obtain experimental data on the pressure-temperature- 
composition relations governing which minerals will crystallize from 
given magmatic liquids. They seek the distribution of major, 
minor, and trace elements among liquids, minerals, and fluids, and 
various physical properties of liquids and mineral-liquid mixtures. 



96 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

These physical properties include viscosity, compressibility, electrical 
and thermal conductivity, and element diffusivity. 

A different, more fundamental approach is being taken by 
investigators Bjorn My sen, David Virgo, and co-workers at the 
Geophysical Laboratory. They are conducting experimental studies 
of silicate melt structure, largely to ascertain relationships between 
melt structure and the physical properties. By this approach they 
expect to predict accurately physical properties over the wide 
range of compositions, temperatures, and pressures where magmatic 
liquids form, evolve, and crystallize. 

The most important structural entity in natural magmatic liquids 
is the three-dimensional network unit, where all oxygens are 
bonded to two neighboring tetrahedrally coordinated cations. In 
one large sample of Cenozoic extrusive rocks of known bulk 
composition, from 66% to 100% of the network units are three- 
dimensional. Figure 22, on next page, shows how the property of 
molar volume, which is closely related to melt density, and the 
viscosity are positively correlated with the concentrations of three- 
dimensional network units in natural magmatic liquids. 

Mysen, Virgo, and colleagues have turned their attention to 
volatile components, such as water and fluorine, which are the most 
important volatile constituents of igneous rock. One effect of 
volatiles in magma is seen in volcanic eruptions, where water-rich 
magmas erupt violently; thus along continental margins, where the 
source regions of magma are particularly rich in volatiles, volcanic 
eruptions are typically highly explosive and often destructive. This 
behavior results from the large difference in partial molar volume 
of H 2 in solution and the molar volume of H 2 in a separate fluid 
phase at the same pressure and temperature. 

Such aqueous fluids are often efficient solvents of geochemically 
(and sometimes economically) important elements. It is therefore 
important to describe the partitioning of elements between the 
magmatic liquids and the coexisting aqueous fluids at magmatic 
temperatures and pressures. 

Furthermore, dissolved water or fluorine profoundly affect the 
structure of a magmatic liquid. As water or fluorine is dissolved in 
a melt that originally contained 100% three-dimensional network 
units, the melt structure is depolymerized — i.e., broken up into 
smaller units, with many nonbridging oxygens. (A nonbridging 
oxygen is bonded to only one tetrahedrally coordinated cation.) 
Thus a measure of the degree of melt polymerization is the proportion 
of nonbridging oxygens per tetrahedrally coordinated cations, or 
NBO/T. The curves in Fig. 23 are experimental results showing 
how depolymerization (NBO/T) increases with increase in water or 
fluorine content. (Depolymerization is also seen to increase with 
decrease in Al content in melts of equal volatile content.) Experi- 
mental results showing relationships between NBO/T and melt 
viscosity are plotted in Fig. 24. Because water or fluorine in 



30.00 



28.60 

-i 
O 

s 

o 27.20 



S 

D 
_l 

O 25.80 



O 

2 24.40 



23.00 - 



1 1 


1 1 1 1 




":.*£&» 


- 




- 




- 


-> a — 




^ * 


- 


■ *.** * 


1 1 


i i ii 



0.60 0.68 0.76 0.84 0.92 1.00 

THREE-DIMENSIONAL NETWORK UNITS 



5.20 



- 4.52 - 



3.84 - 



> 3.16 

(3 

O 



2.84 - 



1.80 - 



I I 


i t i i 


- 


■4~ 

... ~'.; j m 

Mr ■• 


- 




: 




i i 


I I I I 




Fig. 23. Experimental data by Mysen et al. 
showing NBOIT vs. volatile content of water- 
and fluorine-bearing melts on the join Si0 2 - 
NaA10 2 . Curves labeled OH represent hydrous 
melts, volatile content expressed as OH/(OH + 
O). Dashed curves labeled F represent fluorine- 
bearing melts, volatile content expressed as F/(F 
+ O). The numbers shown on each curve are 
values of bulk composition in A1/(A1 + Si). 
Depolymerization {NBOIT) is seen to increase 
with increasing volatile content. Also, for a given 
volatile concentration, higher Al content will 
result in decreased NBOIT. 



0.60 0.68 0.76 0.84 0.92 1.00 

THREE-DIMENSIONAL NETWORK UNITS 

Fig. 22. Bjorn Mysen, David Virgo, and 
colleagues at the Geophysical Laboratory have 
for several years studied network structure in 
melts; a foremost objective is to use structural 
information to predict magmatic liquid properties 
over a wide range of compositions, pressures, 
and temperatures. 

The above diagrams show relationships 
between the proportion of three-dimensional 
network units in the melt structure, and molar 
volume (a property closely related to density) 
and viscosity. (Calculated from the chemical 
compositions of 705 Cenozoic rocks, rockfile 
RKNFSYS; see Chayes, Year Book 7J>, 550-551. 
The rock types included are rhyolite, dacite, 
andesite, and tholeiite.) 



5.20 




I I I 


i i 


jrj 


&•"' 




4.52 


hj' 


yfe : 


- 


3.84 






- 


3.16 








2.48 






; ^ - 


1.80 


- 


i i i 


I I 



0.45 
NBO/T 



0.75 



Fig. 24. Viscosity as a function of degree of 
polymerization (NBOIT) of the melts. (Samples 
are the same ones shown in Fig. 22.) 



solution affects melt structure, any melt property related to structure 
is also a function of water or fluorine content. 

A detailed understanding at the structural level of the solubility 
mechanisms of water and fluorine in natural magmatic liquids can 
provide a basis for understanding the relationship between volatile 
content and viscosity. Solution of water or fluorine in magmatic 
liquids takes place by interaction between OH or F " groups and 



98 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



Jd 
AI/(AI + Si) = 0.333 



wt% HUO 



wt% HoO 







2.5 ! 


5 7.5 


2.5 


5 7.5 




0.6 




1 ^ ' ' 
Silicate \ T0 2 


l 
Water 


I 1 


- 






T = AI + Si \ 










0.5 


— 




\ 






— 






\ 
\ 
\ 
\ 








0.4 

c 
o 

o 










CO 




\ 








r 0.3 

o 

S 




\ 
\ 




tAI(OH) 3 ] 




0.2 


- 




^ 


^^fH 2 O]0 


- 


0.1 


- 


j^ 


' /^ 




- 






^.^ 


[NaOH] 








**" 




1 ; 






i i 


I 


£T ^ — •t— 


T 



0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 

OH/(OH + 0) 



0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 

OH/(OH + 0) 



Fig. 25. Experimental data for a melt of Jd composition (NaAlSi 2 6 ), showing 
how melt structure varies with volatile content. At left, with increasing presence 
of H 2 0, or OH/(OH + O), the proportion of the three-dimensional-network form 
(Al,Si)0 2 oxide is reduced and the depolymerized (Al,Si)0 3 2 " form is increased. 
(In the diagram, T = Al + Si.) At right, the proportion of Al complexes in water 
dissolved in the magmatic liquid is seen to increase substantially with increasing 
presence of H 2 0. 



Temperature, °C 
1200 1400 1600 




7.0 6.0 5.0 

l/Tx Itf 4 (K" 1 ) 



Fig. 26. Values of viscosity calculated from 
solubility mechanisms data by My sen et al. and 
observed viscosities, plotted against temperature, 
water contents shown. (See text). 



10.0 
9.0 




I I 


I I 


I I I I I 
30221-2 — 


1^— ■ O | 


_ 


8.0 
7.0 










"" 


6.0 












- 


5.0 












- 


4.0 












- 


3.0 












- 






o 


JA 


30 mol % OH 






2.0 








/ 














.- 


^X 










1.0 
0.9 








Volatile-free 






- 










- 


0.8 


- 










- 


0.7 












- 


0.6 












- 


0.5 












- 


0.4 




I I 


I I 


1 I I i 1 


i i i 


- 



La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu 

Fig. 27. Effect of water and fluorine on the 
enrichment of rare earth elements in magmatic 
liquids (in equilibrium with a hypothetic mineral 
phase with partition coefficients equal to 1 for 
volatile-free melts). The data are from calculations 
by Mysen et al. , based on their knowledge of 
melt structure. 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 99 

metal cations in the liquids. The most important complexes thus 
formed involve aluminum and sodium. The Geophysical Laboratory 
investigators have experimentally studied the proportions of such 
complexes as well as the overall effects on melt structure as a 
function of bulk composition. An example of their results is shown 
in the drawing, Fig. 25. 

From the established relations between structure, property, and 
dissolved water and fluorine content, Mysen et al. used their data 
on solubility mechanisms to calculate the viscosities of aluminosilicate 
melts at given H 2 content. The resulting values accorded well 
with experimental measurements of viscosity to within 5% — 
an amount less than the uncertainty in the measurements (Fig. 26). 
The data can also be used to predict structural changes in liquids 
and, therefore, changes in the kinds of minerals likely to crystallize 
from the liquids as a function of the volatile component. Increase 
in fluorine content enhances the probability of crystallization of 
aluminum-deficient minerals (quartz and tridymite); increase 
in water content enhances crystallization of Al-rich minerals. Thus 
in natural magmatic systems, residual magma from water-rich 
magmatic systems is more aluminous than that from fluorine-rich 
systems. 

Structural changes in liquids resulting from dissolved volatiles 
also alter partition coefficients between melts and minerals of 
geochemically important trace elements — the rare earth elements, 
for example, which are considered particularly sensitive indicators 
of the petrogenetic histories of rocks. It can be seen in Fig. 27 that 
with increasing water or fluorine contents, the rare earth element 
patterns in the volatile-bearing liquids coexisting with crystals 
change rapidly. The effect is significantly more pronounced for 
fluorine-bearing than for water-bearing melts. Whereas traditionally 
the changes in rare earth element patterns would be ascribed to 
changes in liquidus mineralogy of the magma, the results summarized 
in the drawing show that the volatile contents of the magmatic 
liquids may have a similiar effect. These inferences can be made 
because the details of the solubility mechanisms of fluorine and 
water have been established, and the relationships between rare 
earth element partitioning and melt structure have been determined. 

The results of Mysen et al. for the first time show that the 
physical and chemical properties of magmatic liquids required to 
characterize magmatic processes can be described in terms of the 
structures of the liquids. Whereas in the past a painstaking effort 
was required to measure each property for each magma composition, 
the experimental and theoretical framework is now in place to 
predict accurately liquidus phase equilibria, element partitioning, 
viscosity, and density in magmatic liquids. 



100 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

The Inverted Telescope Idea 

The pioneering seismologist R. D. Oldham wrote in 1906 that the 
goal of seismological research is "to see into the earth and to 
determine its nature with as great a certainty. . . as if we could 
drive a tunnel through it and take samples of the matter passed 
through."* Eighty years later, seismology is on the threshold 
of realizing that goal. New initiatives are capitalizing on remarkable 
technological breakthroughs in low-power digital recording, which 
together with advanced data processing methods provide the 
essential elements for constructing a mobile "inverted telescope" 
for probing the Earth's interior in geological detail. 

The idea exploits the concept of full-wavefield recording and 
analysis, in contrast to the older approach of ray-tracing distinct 
seismic phases. Seismic wavefields are observed using an array of 
seismic recorders positioned in an appropriate pattern on the 
surface. The wavefields, which are superpositions of compressional 
and shear waves generated artificially or naturally, are exceedingly 
complex and perhaps beyond full analysis. New digital techniques, 
however, appear to make possible the identification of major 
features of wavefields and the relationship of such features to 
layering or other heterogeneities in the Earth. The concept of 
seismic wavefield imaging is rather similar to that of holography or 
tomography using electromagnetic waves — i.e., to use all the 
information contained in a wavefield to produce three-dimensional 
images of the contrasting seismic velocity structure in the Earth's 
interior. The velocity structure, in turn, can be interpreted in 
geological terms. 

In theory, seismic illumination of structures within the Earth can 
be achieved by several methods. But in actuality, the only true 
wavefield imaging generally practiced is reflection imaging using 
waves generated at the surface — a method developed for oil 
exploration and largely limited to depths of 15 km or less. A major 
obstacle to deeper imaging is the lack of adequate instrumentation; 
particularly needed are "smart," microprocessor-based portable 
instruments capable of continuously examining incoming seismic 
signals and recording only actual earthquake events. The feasibility 
of such instruments is undoubted, however, and their development 
is an important part of current activity in the inverted-telescope 
project. 

Another handicap to deeper studies is the limited energy available 
when using artificial sources (i.e., explosions) for generating seismic 
energy for reflection profiling. Some years ago, scientists essentially 



*R. D. Oldham, Constitution of the interior of the Earth, Quart. J. Geol. 
Soc. London 62, 456-473, 1906. 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 



101 



4.00 



STA 9 (baz 300-360) 
dist(km) 
6.00 8.00 



10.00 



u 
</> 

<U 

E 



10.0 




So- 



20.0 



811 7 



S^20.0 



Fig. 28. Scientists are working toward a capability for obtaining high-resolution 
images of the Earth's crust and upper mantle by analyzing digital seismograms 
of microearthquakes recorded on dense local networks. The possibilities in the 
method are shown in a recent analysis by David James and Timothy Clarke 
of DTM, and their collaborators at the University of Wisconsin. Shown here, 
seismic tracings from microearthquake events recorded at one of the stations 
arrayed at Borah Peak, Idaho, following the 1983 major earthquake. Data from 
the different sources are normalized to common depth and magnitude, and are 
then stacked in the fashion shown here to provide data redundancy thereby 
enhancing the true signal. The traces are stacked at distance intervals of 0.20 km 
in a northwesterly azimuth from the station. Sj and S 2 indicate hypothetical model 
times for reflectors at 18-km and 40-km depths. Zones of strong reflection can be 
seen at about 19 km and 25 km. (Each trace represents a sum of up to 16 
individual seismograms, as indicated by the numbers at the foot. For convenience 
in the display, zero time is arbitrarily set to about 4 seconds after normalized 
origin time.) 



gave up on using natural earthquakes as sources for detailed 
crustal studies because of uncertainties in event locations and origin 
times. Controlled sources therefore became the fashion, not just for 
oil exploration but for most scientific investigations of crustal 
structure. 



102 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

In a pilot study aimed at exploring the innovative use of earthquake 
sources for imaging of deeper regions, DTM staff member David 
James has joined with Professor Robert P. Meyer and his students 
at the University of Wisconsin. (Wisconsin is one of the few 
academic institutions with a sizeable complement of portable digital 
seismographs.) The investigators employed data obtained from a 
small array of Wisconsin seismographs, which had been deployed 
over a region of aftershocks following a 1983 major earthquake at 
Borah Peak, Idaho. Using numerical techniques now possible 
because of recent advances in affordable computer power, the 
investigators succeeded in combining and correlating data from 
many seismic events. The first results revealed the existence of a 
prominent reflecting horizon at a depth of about 19 km; less- 
prominent reflections were seen from 25 km. Some of the reflections 
are continuous over the area of the array. 

This first experiment, which used a rather small seismic array 
but data from multiple sources, demonstrated the feasibility of 
array seismology for high-resolution imaging of the Earth's crust 
and indicated its potential future importance (see Fig. 28). 

Biogeochemistry 

Research on the Earth's biochemical processes at the Geophysical 
Laboratory is opening the way for useful applications in the plant 
sciences, in paleontology, in the study of marine systems, and in 
the study of crude oils and shales. A venture in the plant sciences, 
in partnership with scientists of the Department of Plant Biology, 
has been discussed earlier (see p. 12). Other enterprises, discussed 
below, provide a cross-section of leading work in this rich subdis- 
cipline. 

Paleodiets from Stable Isotope Studies. Research by Geophysical 
Laboratory investigators P. Edgar Hare, Marilyn Fogel (formerly 
Estep), Thomas Hoering, and Thomas Stafford has shown that the 
stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon in the amino acids of animal 
proteins are related to diet. Half of the twenty amino acids in 
animal proteins cannot be synthesized by most animals and thus 
must ultimately be supplied by plant proteins in the diet. Most 
plant food proteins used by man are from plants using the C 3 
photosynthetic pathway, such as wheat, barley, oats, and soybeans. 
Proteins from these plants are consistently lower in their 8 13 C 
values than proteins from plants using the C 4 photosynthetic 
pathway. Corn and sugar cane are foods derived from C 4 plants and 
are around 12 parts per thousand heavier in 8 13 C than are proteins 
derived from C 3 plants. A study of the bone collagen of American 
Indians, from archeological sites in the eastern United States, 
showed a marked increase in 8 13 C 500-1,000 years ago, when corn 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 103 

became a major dietary component. 

The nitrogen stable isotopes do not similarly offer a means for 
distinguishing C 3 from C 4 plants, but they do offer evidence on the 
metabolic turnover of nitrogen in the synthesis of animal proteins. 
In experiments where animals were fed amino acids with known 
values of 8 15 N, Hare et al. and A. D. Mitchell of the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture discovered that the amino acid threonine 
has a unique stable isotope ratio. Whereas nitrogen used in 
synthesizing proteins from the other amino acids is drawn from a 
common pool of nitrogen in the animal, threonine cannot take 
nitrogen from this pool. Thus even in carnivores, the threonine's 
nitrogen must originally have been synthesized during plant 
biosynthesis. 

From studies of collagen in bones of animals fed controlled diets, 
the investigators found that the threonine 8 15 N is reduced 5-6 parts 
per thousand compared to the threonine of the diet. Thus, it 
appears that the amount of 8 15 N depletion can provide an indication 
of the number of trophic levels through which the threonine has 
been cycled — a useful measure in studying food chains in different 
environments. A mixed herbivore and carnivore diet should yield 
intermediate 15 N threonine values reflecting the separate proportions 
of the diets and the trophic cycling. 

The Delaware Estuary Project. Measurements of carbon and 
nitrogen isotopes in suspended particulate matter of the Delaware 
Estuary are contributing to understanding of this marine system. 
Geophysical Laboratory predoctoral fellow Luis Cifuentes, staff 
member Marilyn Fogel, and Jonathan Sharp of the University of 
Delaware are making such observations at different times and 
places in the estuary; they are comparing the resulting data with 
measurements of sediment load, organic material production, 
inorganic concentrations, and biomass. They are finding substantial 
variability in the isotope ratios with season and locality, and they 
are interpreting these variations (along with variations in the other 
measurements) in terms of seasonal and local phenomena. 

Recent measurements of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in bottom 
sediments proved consistent with a mixing regime of terrestrial and 
marine sources. Carbon values near Wilmington, Delaware, indicated 
a large contribution by terrestrial plant material and sewage; 
values increased systematically toward the mouth of the estuary, 
indicating an increasing marine contribution. Nitrogen isotope 
measurements in bottom sediments mirrored the variations seen in 
suspended matter. 

The group's work points to the profound influence of biological 
processes on isotope ratios. They have shown that among the 
factors strongly affecting isotopic abundances in the estuary are (1) 
the isotopic composition of inorganic and organic sources, and (2) 



104 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

microbial processes, primarily nitrification and remineralization, 
which alter the isotopic composition of inorganic carbon and nitrogen 
available for phytoplankton uptake. The group is planning isotopic 
measurements of inorganic carbon and nitrogen in the estuary, in 
hopes of studying how variations in ratios may influence assimilation 
by organic matter. 

Sedimentary Organic Matter. Recent experiments by Thomas 
Hoering follow a long tradition at the Geophysical Laboratory, 
where chemical processes seen in the Earth are studied under 
controlled laboratory conditions. The new experiments use the 
perspectives of modern synthetic organic chemistry to investigate 
how organic materials may have been transformed over geological 
time. 

Molecules with long, straight chains of carbon atoms are common 
constituents of the organic matter in both living organisms and 
sedimentary rocks. (See carbon skeleton schematic of normal 
hexadecane, Ci 6 H 34 , in upper drawing, Fig. 29.) Less common but 
easily detectable are similar molecules having a single carbon 
branch point, where an additional carbon atom is attached to the 
chain. The fats and waxes of modern plants and animals contain 
molecules with the branching points primarily at carbons 2 and 3 
(middle drawings, Fig. 29). But in current experiments, Hoering 
finds that the saturated hydrocarbons in ancient crude oils and 
shales have appreciable concentrations of molecules branching at 
carbons 4, 5, 6, etc. (bottom drawing, Fig. 29). Either ancient 
organisms had biosynthetic pathways such to produce molecules 
with these branch points or, as Hoering believes, extensive 
rearrangements have occurred in sediments to form these new 
molecules. 

Hoering's observations are made possible by his discovery that a 
new molecular sieve, Silicalite, having pores 5.8 Angstrom units 
(1 A = 10 ~ 10 meters) in diameter, selectively accommodates 
branched hydrocarbons. These compounds can be thus conveniently 
separated from the complex mixtures in petroleum. He then can 
perform quantitative analysis of branched hydrocarbons (having up 
to 30 carbon atoms) by means of new, bonded-phase, fused-silica 
gas chromatography columns and (for high-speed, selected ion 
monitoring) a quadrupole mass spectrometer. 

Hoering postulates that a process occurring over long periods at 
ambient conditions in sedimentary organic matter is responsible for 
the rearrangements, or isomerization, from the original 2-methyl 
and 3-methyl forms to the present configurations. Such reactions 
are studied in synthetic organic chemistry, where isomerization is 
carried out with powerful acid catalysts, such as concentrated 
sulfuric acid or anhydrous aluminum chloride. Such reagents, 
however, are not likely to have been present geologically. 

Certain clay minerals commonly found in host rocks can display 



NORMAL 
HEXAOECANE 



2 METHYL 
HEXADECANE 



3 METHYL 
HEXAOECANE 



4 METHYL 
HEXADECANE 





Fig. 29. Schematic representation of the 
carbon skeletons of linear and branched organic 
molecules. A carbon atom resides at each of 
the dots and forms four covalent, chemical bonds 
to other carbons (indicated by lines) or to 
hydrogen atoms (not shown). Note the possibility 
of chain branching where a carbon atom can be 
bonded to three other carbons. 



Fig. 30. A possible mechanism for rearrange- 
ment of branched hydrocarbons. A strongly 
acidic site in a clay matrix abstracts a hydride 
ion (H " ) from the branching point at number 2 
carbon in the chain to form a positive center 
in the molecule (a carbonium ion). Such ions are 
extremely reactive and can rearrange to move 
the branch point down the chain. 



</' ' / . Acidic / ' /, 

Y/ / • *■ / / 



Ctay Mineral . / 



//' 



' / 



/ ' // 



HYDRIDE 
ABSTRACTION 



CARBONIUM ION 



REARRANGEMENT 





\/Sj Ctay Mineral ' / / / ' / 



/ / / " / ,i 

, , j ACIDIC ' ' 

/ / / S.TE / A 

/ / / x / A 



OLEFIN FROM 
CRACKING OF 
KEROGEN 



CARBONIUM ION 



REARRANGEMENT 




Fig. 31. An alternate, speculative mechanism, 
proposed by Thomas Hoering of the Geophysical 
Laboratory, for the rearrangement of branched 
hydrocarbons. Branched carbon structures, 
bonded into the solid kerogen of sedimentary 
organic matter, are thermally cracked off to yield 
an unsaturated organic molecule, called an olefin, 
having carbon-to-carbon double bonds. Such 
double bonds are known to accept a hydrogen ion 
(H + ) from acids to form carbonium ions, which 
can undergo carbon skeleton rearrangement. 



acidic properties. (The H + ions responsible for the acidity in clay 
are believed to result from the dissociation of water molecules 
under the influence of exchangeable positive ions between the 
layers of alumino-silicate polyhedra.) Hoering is testing the possible 
role of acidic ions in clay as catalysts for isomerization in nature. 

In his experiments, insoluble organic matter (kerogen) from 
Green River Oil Shale is heated for several days up to 300°C. 



106 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

Green River Shale does not contain clay minerals but is mainly a 
poorly crystalline form of dolomite, CaMg(C0 3 ) 2 . Dolomite does not 
promote acid catalysis and, as is expected, the hydrocarbons 
occurring naturally in this rock and during the artificial heating in 
the laboratory are mainly in the biologically inherited 2-methyl and 
3-methyl forms. But when the naturally occurring clay mineral 
montmorillonite is added during the heating, the production of 4-, 
5-, and 6-methyl isomers of hydrocarbons is definitely increased. 
This result is evidence favoring Hoering's hypothesis of acid 
catalysis. 

It is also known that the presence of excess liquid water greatly 
diminishes the acid strength of water bound into the clay lattice. 
Hoering therefore heated the Green River Shale with montmorillonite 
in the presence of liquid water; the experiment yielded few of the 
4-, 5-, and 6-methyl isomers, and therefore provided further 
evidence of the hypothesis. 

Hoering has explored the possible mechanisms of these geochemical 
transformations. From synthetic organic chemistry, it is known 
that acid-catalyzed rearrangements involve carbonium ions — highly 
active ions which tend to undergo rearrangements from 2-methyl to 
3-methyl isomer form, for example. (Carbonium ions are organic 
molecules carrying a positive charge often caused by the abstraction 
of an H ~ hydride ion from the branching point in strongly acid 
systems.) Hoering heated Green River Shale in the presence of 
montmorillonite clay, adding as a "molecular probe" a small amount 
of 2-methyl octadecane. If hydride abstraction had taken place, an 
excess of 3-, 4-, and 5-methyl isomers would have formed from the 
molecular probe. But such compounds were not observed (see 
Fig. 30). Evidently, as had been previously suspected, montmoril- 
lonite is not sufficiently acidic to catalyze isomerization by this 
route. 

Another, more speculative, mechanism involves the formation of 
carbonium ions by the reaction of H + ions from clay with the 
carbon-to-carbon double bonds in olefins — unsaturated hydrocarbons 
intermediate in the thermal cracking of kerogen to small molecules 
(see Fig. 31). Hoering hopes to conduct experiments using branched, 
unsaturated hydrocarbons as molecular probes. 

The process shown in the drawing is a greatly simplified form of 
what may occur. Olefins under attack by hydrogen ions are known 
to react by several pathways to yield a multitude of products. Such 
complexity in geological matrices has hindered understanding of the 
natural transformation of natural organic matter. But the situation 
is changing. Modern methods of instrumental analysis, such as gas 
chromatography and mass spectrometry, and computer-assisted 
data gathering and management, make it possible to study such 
systems in detail. Hoering's experiments show how chemical 
processes occurring in a shale can be studied in the context of 
modern organic chemistry. 



Professional Activities 



Like scientists everywhere, Carnegie staff members continued to 
participate in seminars and symposia, deliver invited lectures, and 
attend conferences in special subject areas. Many served as 
chairpersons for panels or conferences, or as organizers for meetings. 
This year, for example, Allan Spradling of the Department of 
Embryology served as co-chair of the Gordon Conference on 
Developmental Biology. Geophysical Laboratory staff member 
Bj6m My sen organized the International Conference and Field 
Study of Physicochemical Principles of Magmatic Processes, held in 
honor of Geophysical Laboratory director Hatten S. Yoder, Jr., in 
Hawaii during June. John Graham of DTM chaired the scientific 
organizing committee of the International Astronomical Union 
Symposium on Instrumentation and Research Programs for Small 
Telescopes. 

Several of the Institution's postdoctoral fellows, too, served in 
leadership capacities. (Indeed, individuals tend to be selected for 
fellowships by the departments partly for their independence and 
leadership potential.) This year, postdoctoral fellow Julie Morris of 
DTM co-chaired a session on arc petrology at the spring meeting of 
the American Geophysical Union. During December 1985, Department 
of Embryology postdoctoral fellow Lynn Cooley and graduate 
student Suki Parks organized the Department's ninth annual 
minisymposium, "Parasitology: Molecular Approaches to a Global 
Problem." 

Carnegie scientists also served as officers for scientific societies, 
editors of scientific journals, and members of advisory or awards 
committees. Some participated in educational or public service- 
oriented ventures. Many, for instance, have joint appointments as 
professors in local universities; this has been true for many years at 
the Department of Plant Biology, located on the campus of Stanford 
University, and at the Department of Embryology, near the Johns 
Hopkins University. This year, Paul Silver of DTM became a 
research associate professor at Hopkins, in the Department of 
Earth and Planetary Sciences. 

Still other Carnegie scientists participated in educational ventures 
apart from the university campus. Vice president Margaret Mac Vicar 
was named a member of the National Science Foundation's Advisory 
Committee to the Directorate for Science and Education. She also 
is co-chair of Project 2016 of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, which is responsible for revising the math 
and science curriculum for grades kindergarten through 12. Vera 
Rubin of DTM was a lecturer at the Vatican Observatory summer 



108 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

school in 1986, lecturing daily for over a month. She reports that of 
her 25 beginning graduate students, 17 came from nonindustrialized 
countries. Rubin, Julie Morris, and Deidre Hunter gave talks at 
local high schools during National Science Week. Sondra Lazarowitz 
of Embryology presented a class and lab to tenth grade students at 
the Maryland Science Center. 

In an educational activity more oriented to the layperson, DTM's 
Alan Boss gave an interview about the Moon's origin on the 
Canadian Broadcasting Company's "Quirks and Quarks" radio 
science series. Paul Schechter of the Observatories and postdoctoral 
fellow Kirk Borne of DTM gave several interviews about galaxy 
rotational properties on Carnegie's own radio series — Perspectives 
in Science. Alan Dressier of the Observatories and Schechter 
were interviewed on National Public Radio's All Things Considered 
program, and Carnegie president James Ebert discussed "One 
Hundred Years of American Biology" in a broadcast recorded at 
the National Humanities Center, North Carolina, for the series 
Soundings. 

Some scientists performed service activities in areas slightly 
removed from their major fields of study. Geophysical Laboratory 
staff member Douglas Rumble, for example, served this year as an 
assistant program director at the National Science Foundation's 
Earth Science Division. Joseph Gall of Embryology was a member 
of the Board of Science Counselors of the National Institute of 
Child Health and Human Development of NIH. Plant Biology's 
Joseph Berry continued his participation in studies on the long- 
term consequences of nuclear war. This year, he contributed to a 
report of the Greater London Area War Risk Study Commission. 

Seminars at the Departments. During the report year, each 
Department, as usual, hosted weekly seminars, attended by 
members of the local science communities. As well, many of the 
individual laboratories continued to hold regular meetings among 
themselves to discuss research progress, problems, and results. At 
DTM, this practice extended to an interdisciplinary group of 
astronomers and earth scientists called the Solar System Cosmogony 
Group. This group, which includes George Wetherill, John Graham, 
Alan Boss, Richard Carlson, and Steven Shirey, has been supported 
for the past four years by the Innovative Research Program of the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Special Events. In August 1985, celebrating the 150th anniversary 
of Andrew Carnegie's birth, a delegation from the Institution, 
including the president, vice president, all five directors, and 
several trustees, traveled to Dunfermline, Scotland, Mr. Carnegie's 
birthplace. There, with representatives from other Carnegie 
organizations, they participated in a one-day symposium entitled 



PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES 

"The Role of Philanthropy in a Changing World." On the following 
day, Plant Biology director Winslow Briggs, Embryology director 
Donald Brown, and John Gurdon, a U.K. scientist with close ties to 
the Department of Embryology, were members of a panel devoted 
to Carnegie Institution science. 

The first Joint Visiting Committee of the Department of Terrestrial 
Magnetism and the Geophysical Laboratory met at the Washington 
campuses on January 20-21. Members of the Committee were 
trustee Edward David, Jr., chair, Alar Toomre (MIT), Charles 
Prewitt (then of SUNY at Stony Brook), David Stevenson (Caltech), 
Thomas Ahrens (Caltech), Marco Einaudi (Stanford University), 
David Walker (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia 
University), W. Gary Ernst (UCLA), and Stanley Hart (MIT). The 
two-day program was highlighted by presentations of work-in- 
progress by several scientists from each department. 

The Visiting Committee to the Department of Plant Biology met 
at the Department on March 6-7. Its members included Antonia 
Axrson Johnson, chair, trustees William R. Hewlett, John Diebold, 
and William F. Kieschnick, and Martyn Caldwell (Utah State 
University), Joseph Key (University of Georgia), David Krogmann 
(Purdue University), Peter Quail (University of Wisconsin, Madison), 
and Joseph Varner (Washington University). 



109 




His Excellency Hernan Felipe Errazuriz, the Ambassador of Chile, 
left, talks with George Preston, center, and Ray Weymann. Preston 
delivered the 1986 Carnegie Lecture, "An Eight-Meter Telescope for 
the 21st Century." 



Losses, Gains, Honors.... 



We report with sadness the deaths of two former trustees. 
Robert A. Lovett served the Institution from 1948 to 1971. 
Throughout his career as a banker and public servant, Lovett 
played a key role in the development of the nation's post- World 
War II defense policy. He worked closely with Secretary of State 
General George C. Marshall in persuading Congress to provide aid 
for a devastated Europe. When Marshall became Secretary of 
Defense, Lovett became his Deputy Secretary. From 1951 to 1953, 
Lovett served as Secretary of Defense, after which he returned 
full-time to his private banking practice in New York City. He died 
on May 7, 1986, at the age of 91. 

J. Paul Austin was a Carnegie trustee from 1976 to 1978. During 
this time, he was Chairman of the Board of the Coca-Cola Company. 
In 1981, he retired from the soft-drink company, to which he had 
devoted most of his career. He died on December 26, 1985, at the 
age of 70. 

Two retired staff members of the Institution's former Department 
of Archaeology died this year. Tatiana Proskouriakoff, an expert on 
Mayan hieroglyphs, served the Institution first as a draftsperson 
(1939-1943), then as a staff member (1943-1959). When the 
Department closed, she joined the staff of Harvard's Peabody 
Museum, where she continued to study Mayan glyphs. She died in 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, on August 30, 1985. She was 76. 

A. Ledyard Smith was a staff member of the Department of 
Archaeology from 1932 until 1948, at which time he joined the staff 
of the Peabody Museum. He died last spring at the age of 85. 

Paul Scherer and Margaret Hale Scherer both died this year. 
Paul Scherer was executive officer of the Carnegie Institution 
under two presidents, Vannevar Bush and Caryl Haskins (1947- 
1961). He had earlier worked with Bush in the Office of Scientific 
Research and Development, which he joined in 1943 as chief of the 
Engineering and Transition Office. Paul and Margaret, George 
Ellery Hale's daughter, had been married since 1918. Margaret 
died on May 5, 1986, at the age of 89; Paul died on July 17. He was 
88. 

Stepping down from his post as Chairman of the Board in May 
1986 was William R. Hewlett, who had served as a Carnegie 
trustee since 1971 and Chairman since 1980. Hewlett remains on 
the Board as trustee and as a member of the Executive Committee. 

Retiring this year was Geophysical Laboratory director Hatten 
S. Yoder, Jr. Yoder joined the Laboratory in 1948 as a postdoctoral 




Former executive officer Paul Scherer and his wife, 
Margaret, daughter of George Ellery Hale, died this year 
within four months of one another. 



fellow after receiving his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology. He became a staff member nine months later. In his 
early years at the Laboratory, Yoder developed a pressure- 
temperature apparatus that was able to attain experimental conditions 
comparable to those at the base of the continental crust. He 
became an expert on basaltic magma — its origin, requirements for 
melting, and mechanisms of accumulation. After becoming director 
in 1971, Yoder continued to do research. He has received many 
honors throughout his career, including election to the National 
Academy of Sciences, and the Academy's 1972 Arthur L. Day 
Prize. He was recognized most recently at the International 
Conference and Field Study of Physicochemical Principles of 
Magmatic Processes, held in his honor in Hawaii during June 1986. 

Felix Chayes of the Geophysical Laboratory and Halton C. Arp 
of the Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observatories retired this 
year. Chayes joined the Laboratory staff in 1947, after receiving 
his Ph.D. in petrology from Columbia University. Chayes has been 
particularly interested in the use of statistics in petrology, and has 
devoted many years toward systematizing the electronic storage, 
use, and retrieval of petrological data. 

Halton Arp had been a staff member at the Observatories since 
1957. He received his Ph.D. in 1953 from the California Institute of 
Technology, and was a fellow at Mount Wilson from 1953 until 
1955. An astronomer of international reputation, Arp has received 
several awards, among them the 1960 Helen B. Warner Prize of 



112 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

the American Astronomical Society and the 1984 Humboldt Prize, 
awarded for research at the Max-Planck- Institute for Physics and 
Astrophysics in Munich. 

Others retiring this year were Richard D. Grill, Department of 
Embryology photographer since 1949, Charlie Batten, shop foreman 
and instrument maker at the Geophysical Laboratory since 1962, 
and Observatories driver William D. Quails, who has been with 
Carnegie since 1978. 

Gains 

Richard E. Heckert, newly appointed chairman of E. I. du Pont 
de Nemours & Co. , was elected Chairman of the Board of Trustees 
of the Carnegie Institution (for a three-year term) at the 89th 
annual meeting of the Board, held on May 9. Heckert has been a 
Carnegie trustee since 1980 and a member of its Executive 
Committee since 1983. 

Elected as trustee, also for a three-year term, was Thomas N. 
Urban, president and chairman of Pioneer Hi-Bred International 
and an active public figure in Des Moines, Iowa. (He was Mayor of 
Des Moines from 1968 until 1971). Urban joined Pioneer Hi-Bred in 
1960 and, except for a two-year leave in the early 1970's, has 
served the company ever since. He holds undergraduate and MBA 
degrees from Harvard University. 

Two new departmental directors were appointed this year, 
effective July 1, 1986. Ray J. Weymann became director of the 
Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observatories, replacing George 
Preston, who remains at the Observatories as staff member. 
Weymann was most recently professor of astronomy at the 
University of Arizona's Steward Observatory. He received his 
Ph.D. from Princeton in 1959, and worked at Caltech and the 
University of Arizona. He became a professor at the University in 
1967. He served as director of the Steward Observatory and as 
head of the University's astronomy department from 1970 to 1975. 
A member of the National Academy of Sciences, Weymann is 
known for his contributions to stellar spectroscopy and study of 
Seyfert galaxies, and, more recently, for studies on quasars and 
gravitational lenses. 

At the Geophysical Laboratory, Charles T. Prewitt succeeds 
Hatten S. Yoder, Jr., as director. Prewitt came to Carnegie from 
the State University of New York at Stony Brook, where he had 
served since 1969; he became professor of earth science and materials 
science there in 1975. A crystallographer and mineralogist by 
training, Prewitt received his S.B., S.M., and Ph.D. degrees from 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His current studies 
involve development of structural models for minerals at high 
temperatures and pressures. 



LOSSES, GAINS, HONORS 113 

Honors 

Donald D. Brown, director of the Department of Embryology, 
was a co-recipient of Columbia University's 1985 Louisa Gross 
Horwitz Prize. The Horwitz Prize is bestowed to a scientist or 
scientists who have made outstanding contributions to basic research 
in the fields of biology or biochemistry. Brown also delivered the 
1985 DeWitt Stetten, Jr. , Lecture of the National Institute of 
General Medical Sciences, NIH, and the 1985 Robert and Esther 
Stadtler Lecture, University of Texas System Cancer Center, 
Houston. 

George W. Wetherill, director of the Department of Terrestrial 
Magnetism, received the Gerard P. Kuiper Prize from the Division 
for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society on 
November 4, 1986, in Paris. The Prize is awarded annually to a 
scientist whose achievements have "most advanced the understanding 
of planetary sciences." 

Carnegie vice president Margaret L. A. Mac Vicar received a 
Charles A. Dana Commendation for Pioneering Achievement in 
Higher Education from the Charles A. Dana Foundation on 
November 6, 1986. She received the 1986 Educator of the Year, 
Valerie A. Knapp Award from the College Club of Boston in 
February 1986. She spoke at the commencement exercises of 
Harvey Mudd College on May 18, 1986. 

Olle Bjorkman, staff member at the Department of Plant Biology, 
received the Stephen Hales award from the American Society of 
Plant Physiologists for his outstanding contributions in the area of 
physiological ecology. He was also elected a Foreign Associate of 
the Australian Academy of Sciences, and a Fellow of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science. 

Geophysical Laboratory staff member Robert M. Hazen received 
the Ipatieff Prize of the American Chemical Society on April 14, 
1985, for "his outstanding contributions relating crystal structures 
determined at high pressures and high temperatures to thermody- 
namic properties, and the generation of theory important to the 
fundamental characterization of minerals." 

Embryology staff associate Martin Snider was selected one of 
twenty 1986 Pew Scholars in the Biomedical Sciences by the Pew 
Memorial Trust of Philadelphia. 

Roy J. Britten, Staff Member in Special Subject Area, was 
elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 
October 1986. 

Emeritus staff member Olin C. Wilson of the Observatories 
received a Lifetime Achievement Award for his contributions to 
astronomy at the fourth Cambridge Workship on Cool Stars, 
Stellar Systems, and the Sun, held in October 1985 at Santa Fe. 



114 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

Barbara McClintock, Distinguished Service Member of the 
Institution, was inducted into the Women's Hall of Fame in Seneca, 
New York, on March 8, 1986. 

Allan Sandage of the Observatories received an honorary D.Sc. 
from Graceland College, Iowa. 

DTM staff member Alan T. Linde received a Japan Society for 
the Promotion of Science Fellowship. 

Plant Biology postdoctoral fellows Neal Woodbury and Lamont 
Anderson and former predoctoral fellow David Stern received 1985 
National Science Foundation Fellowships in Plant Biology. 

Former Embryology staff member Gerald Rubin (1980-1983) 
received the 1986 Genetics Society of America Medal. Rubin is now 
at the University of California, Berkeley. 

Former Embryology postdoctoral fellow Robert Roeder (1969- 
1972), now at Rockefeller University, received the National Academy 
of Sciences' U.S. Steel Foundation Award in Molecular Biology. 

Edwin Roedder, former fellow at the Geophysical Laboratory 
(1947-1948), received the Deutsche Mineralogische Gesellschaft 
1985 Abraham Gottlob Werner Medal. Former Geophysical associate 
Alvin Van Valkenburg (1975-1980) received the 1985 John Price 
Wetherill Medal from the Franklin Institute for his role in the 
development of the diamond-cell pressure device. And former 
senior research associate Friedrich A. Seifert was elected director 
of the Bavarian Research Institute for Experimental Geochemistry 
and Geophysics, University of Bayreuth, Federal Republic of 
Germany. 

James Van Allen, former DTM fellow (1939-1941), received the 
first Philip Hauge Abelson Prize of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science in May 1986 for his discovery of 
the Van Allen Radiation Belts. 

In May 1986, trustee Charles H. Townes was co-recipient of the 
L. W. Frohlich Award, which is administered by the New York 
Academy of Sciences and is jointly sponsored by the Academy, 
Columbia University, and New York University. 

Trustee Sandra M. Faber received the Dannie Heineman Prize in 
January 1986 at the Houston meeting of the American Astronomical 
Society. 

In honor of his service as chairman of the Aerospace Corporation's 
Board of Trustees, Carnegie trustee Robert C. Seamans, Jr., 
received the Air Force Exceptional Service Award. He also received 
the Durand Lectureship for Public Service from the American 
Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in April 1986. 

Edward E. David, Jr., received an Honorary Fellow Award from 
the American Institute of Chemists, Inc., in November 1985. In 
December, he received an Honorary Doctor of Science degree from 
the University of Pennsylvania. 



LOSSES, GAINS, HONORS 115 

Chairman Richard E. Heckert was the first recipient of the 
George P. Baker Leadership Award, initiated by the Joint Council 
on Economic Education and bestowed in December 1985. 

William T. Golden received the annual Owl Award from Columbia 
University's School of General Studies on May 7, 1986. He also 
received an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Columbia. 

Trustee Emeritus Frank Stanton received an honorary Doctor of 
Laws degree from Harvard University in 1985. 



George Wetherill's poem about Comet Halley, a part of which is printed on 
page 3, is printed here in full. 



Among the eucalyptus trees, 
Green leaves dancing in the autumn wind, 
The cold pale watcher of mankind 
Treads his ancient trail again. 

Pass swiftly by the angry bull, 

The starry fish and water jar, 

Defy the Sun's consuming flame, 

The archer's bow, 

The scorpion's sting, 

The centaur's wrath, 

The deadly coil of the hydra — 

But then be gone. 

Ask not for Harold of Hastings, 

You know he is not here; 

Nor Attila, vanquished at Chalons, 

Edmund, master of Isaac's rules, 

Nor Giotto, and the Zealots of Jerusalem. 

You must have seen 

The ships that rose to greet you. 

Next time there will be more. 

They'll even mount your haggard head 

And ride you into Neptune's night! 

Yes, we still are bold. 

Though once more we now learn 

The message that you bear, 

Resonate to your grim tattoo, 

The gravest rhythm of our race, 

Yet wait with hope your sure return. 

George Wetherill 
La Serena, April 1986 



Bibliography of Published Work 
and Work Accepted for Publication 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY 



Reprints of the publications listed below 
can be obtained at no charge from the De- 
partment of Embryology, 115 West Univer- 
sity Parkway, Baltimore, MD 21210. 

Donald D. Brown 

Brown, D. D., Corporate and foundation 

support on nontargeted biological research in 
nonprofit institutions, Cell U, 373-374, 1986. 

Brown, D. D., How embryologists became 

developmental biologists and other matters, 
Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 29, No. 
3, Part 2, S149-S153, 1986. 

Brown, D. D., and M. S. Schlissel, A posi- 
tive transcription factor controls the differ- 
ential expression of two 5S RNA genes, Cell 
42, 759-767, 1985. 

Brown, D. D., and M. S. Schlissel, The mo- 
lecular basis of differential gene expression of 
two 5S RNA genes, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. 
Quant. Biol. 50, 549-553, 1985. 

Taylor, W., I. J. Jackson, N. Siegel, A. Ku- 
mar, and D. D. Brown, The developmental 
expression of the gene for TFIIIA in Xenopus 
laevis, Nucl. Acids Res. 14, 6185-6195, 1986. 

Wolffe, A. P., E. Jordan, and D. D. Brown, 

A bacteriophage RNA polymerase transcribes 
through a Xenopus 5S RNA gene transcription 
complex without disrupting it, Cell 44, 381- 
389, 1986. 

Wolffe, A. P., and D. D. Brown, DNA am- 
plification in vitro erases a Xenopus 5S RNA 
gene transcription complex, Cell 47, 217-227, 
1986. 

Wolffe, A. P., and D. D. Brown, Transcrip- 
tion and replication through a 5S RNA gene 
transcription complex, in RNA Polymerase and 
the Regulation of Transcription: Proceedings 
of the Sixteenth Steenbock Symposium, El- 
sevier Science Press, New York, in press. 



Nina V. Fedoroff 

Fedoroff, N. V., Biochemical and molecular 

techniques in maize research, Genet. Eng. 7, 
115-133, 1985. 

Fedoroff, N. V., Maize transposable con- 
trolling elements, in Proceedings of the 16th 
FEBS Congress, Part C, pp. 91-98, V.N.U. 
Science Press, 1985. 

Fedoroff, N. V., Moving genes in maize, in 



Proceedings of the ASM Symposium on En- 
gineered Organisms in the Environment: Sci- 
entific Issues, H. 0. Halvorson, D. Banner, 
and M. Rogul, eds., pp. 70-75, American So- 
ciety for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 1985. 
_ Fedoroff, N., Activation of Spm and Mod- 
ifier elements, Maize Genet. Coop. Newsletter 
60, 18-20, 1986. 

. Fedoroff, N., The recombinant DNA con- 
troversy: a contemporary cautionary tale, Syr- 
acuse Scholar 7, 19-33, 1986. 
_ Banks, J., J. Kingsbury, V. Raboy, J. W. 
Schiefelbein, 0. Nelson, and N. Fedoroff, The 
Ac and Spm controlling element families in 
maize, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 
50, 301-311, 1985. 

. Schell, J., H. Klaulen, F. Kreuzaler, P. 
Eckes, S. Rosahl., L. Willmitzer, A. Spena, 
B. Baker, L. Herrera-Estrella, and N. Fe- 
doroff, Transfer and regulation of expression 
of chimeric genes in plants, Cold Spring Har- 
bor Symp. Quant. Biol. 50, 421-431, 1985. 

_ Schiefelbein, J. W., V. Raboy, N. V. Fe- 
doroff, and O. E. Nelson, Jr., Deletions within 
a defective Suppressor-mutator element in 
maize affect the frequency and developmental 
timing of its excision from the bronze locus, 
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82, 4783-4787, 
1985. 



Joseph G. Gall 

Gall, J. G., ed., Gametogenesis and the Early 

Embryo: 44th Symposium- of the Society for 
Developmental Biology, Alan R. Liss, Inc., 
New York, 1986. 

Berg, C. A., and J. G. Gall, Microinjected 

Tetrahymena rDNA ends are not recognized 
as telomeres in Xenopus eggs, /. Cell Biol. 
103, 691-698, 1986. 

Epstein, L. M. , K. A. Mahon, and J. G. Gall, 

Transcription of a satellite DNA in the newt, 
J. Cell Biol. 103, 1137-1144, 1986. 

Warrior, R., and J. G. Gall, The mitochon- 
drial DNA of Hydra attenuta and Hydra lit- 
toralis consists of two linear molecules, Arch. 
Sci. (Geneve) 38, 439-445, 1985. 

Wu, Z., C. Murphy, and J. G. Gall, A tran- 
scribed satellite DNA from the bullfrog Rana 
catesbeiana, Chromosoma 93, 291-297, 1986. 



Sondra G. Lazarowitz 

Lazarowitz, S. G., The molecular charac- 
terization of Squash Leaf Curl and Maize Streak 



119 



120 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



Viruses (Abst.), in Proceedings of the EMBO 
Workshop on DNA Plant Infectious Agents, 
August, 1985. 

_ Lazarowitz, S. G., Molecular characteriza- 
tion of the genome of squash leaf curl virus: 
identification of two closely related bipartite 
geminiviruses with different host ranges, 
EMBO J., in press. 

_ Lazarowitz, S. G., The molecular charac- 
terization of geminiviruses, Plant Mol. Biol. 
Rep., in press. 



Steven L. McKnight 

Graves, B. J., P. F. Johnson, and S. L. 

McKnight, Homologous recognition of a pro- 
motor domain common to the MSV LTR and 
the HSV tk gene, Cell U, 565-576, 1986. 

McKnight, S. L., and R. Tjian, Transcrip- 
tion selectivity of viral genes in mammalian 
cells, Cell 1,6, 795-805, 1986. 

Coen, D. M., S. P. Weinheimer, and S. L. 

McKnight, A genetic approach to promoter 
recognition during trans induction of viral gene 
expression, Science 23k, 53-59, 1986. 

Richard E. Pagano 

Pagano, R. E., and R. G. Sleight, Defining 

lipid transport pathways in animal cells, Sci- 
ence 229, 1051-1057, 1985. 

Pagano, R. E., and R. G. Sleight, Emerging 

problems in the cell biology of lipids, Trends 
Biochem. Sci. 10, 421-425, 1985. 

Uster, P. S., and R. E. Pagano, Synthesis 

and properties of fluorescent analogs of cyti- 
dine diphosphate-diacylglycerol and phospha- 
tidylinositol, in Enzymes of Lipid Metabolism, 
Vol. II, L. Freysz, R. Massarelli, H. Dreyfus, 
and S. Gatt, eds., Plenum Pub., New York, 
in press. 

Uster, P. S., and R. E. Pagano, Resonance 

energy transfer microscopy: observations of 
membrane-bound fluorescent probes in model 
membranes and in living cells, /. Cell Biol. 
103, 1221-1234, 1986. 



David C. Schwartz 

— _ Schwartz, D. C., Pulsed electrophoresis, in 
New Directions in Electrophoretic Methods: 
A.C.S. Symposium Series No. 335, M. Phillips 
and J. Jorgenson, eds., American Chemical 
Society, Washington, D.C., in press. 

Martin D. Snider 

Snider, M. D., and 0. C. Rogers, Membrane 

traffic in animal cells. Cellular glycoproteins 
return to the site of Golgi mannosidase I, J. 
Cell Biol. 103, 265-275, 1986. 

Brands, R., M. D. Snider, Y. Hino, S. S. 

Park, H. V. Gelboin, and J. E. Rothman, The 
retention of membrane proteins by the endo- 



plasmic reticulum, /. Cell Biol. 101, 1724-1732, 
1985. 

Allan Spradling 

Spradling, A., P-element mediated trans- 
formation, in Drosophila, a Practical Ap- 
proach, D. B. Roberts, ed., pp. 175-197, IRL 
Press, Oxford, 1986. 

Kalfayan, L., J. Levine, T. Orr- Weaver, S. 

Parks, B. Wakimoto, D. deCicco, and A. Spra- 
dling, Localization of sequences regulating 
Drosophila chorion gene amplification and 
expression, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. 
Biol. 50, 527-535, 1985. 

Levine, J., and A. Spradling, DNA se- 
quence of a 3.8-kb region controlling Droso- 
phila chorion gene amplification, Chromosoma 
92, 136-142, 1985. 

Orr- Weaver, T., and A. Spradling, An up- 
stream region required for sl8 chorion gene 
transcription is also essential for amplification, 
Mol. Cell Biol., in press. 

Parks, S. , and A. Spradling, Replication and 

expression of a X-linked cluster of Drosophila 
chorion genes, Devel. Biol. 117, 294-305, 1986. 

Wakimoto, B., L. Kalfayan, and A. Spra- 
dling, Developmentally regulated expression 
of Drosophila chorion genes introduced at di- 
verse chromosomal positions, /. Mol. Biol. 187, 
33-45, 1986. 

Samuel Ward 

Ward, S. , The asymmetric localization of gene 

products during the development of Caenor- 
habditis elegans spermatozoa, in Gametoge- 
nesis and the Early Embryo: J4.If.th Symposium 
of the Society for Developmental Biology, J. 
G. Gall, ed., pp. 55-76, Alan R. Liss., Inc., 
New York, 1986. 

Ward, S., T. M. Roberts, S. Strome, F. M. 

Pavalko, and E. Hogan, Monoclonal antibodies 
that recognize a polypeptide antigenic deter- 
minant shared by multiple Caenorhabditis ele- 
gans sperm-specific proteins, J. Cell Biol. 102, 
1778-1786, 1986. 

Bennett, K. L., and S. Ward, Chromatin 

diminution in Ascaris lumbricoides, in Molec- 
ular Strategies of Parasite Invasion: Proceed- 
ings of the Mac Arthur Foundation-UCLA 
Symposium, N. Agabian et al., eds., Alan R. 
Liss, Inc., New York, in press. 

Roberts, T. M., F. M. Pavalko, and S. Ward, 

Membrane and cytoplasmic proteins are trans- 
ported in the same organelle complex during 
nematode spermatogenesis, /. Cell Biol. 102, 
1787-1796, 1986. 

Bennett, K. L. , and S. Ward, Neither a germ- 
line specific nor somatic gene are lost or rear- 
ranged during chromatin diminution in As- 
caris lumbricoides var. suum., Devel. Biol., 
in press. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



121 



DEPARTMENT OF PLANT BIOLOGY 



Reprints of the numbered publications listed 
below can be obtained at no charge from the 
Department of Plant Biology, 290 Panama St. , 
Stanford, CA 94305. Please give reprint num- 
bers) when ordering. 

Lamont Anderson 
964 Anderson, L., and A. R. Grossman, Phy- 
cocyanin genes in the cyanobacterium Syne- 
chocystis 6701 and a potential gene 
rearrangement in a pigment variant, in Pro- 
ceedings of the VII International Conference 
on Photosynthesis, Brown University, Prov- 
idence, Rhode Island, in press. 

J. Timothy Ball 
904 Ball, J. T., On calculations related to gas 
exchange, in Stomatal Function, E. Zeiger, 
I. R. Cowan, G. D. Farquhar, eds., Stanford 
University Press, in press. 

Tobias I. Baskin 

852 Baskin, T. I., M. lino, P. B. Green, and W. 
R. Briggs, High-resolution measurement of 
growth during first positive phototropism in 
maize, Plant Cell Environ. 8, 595-603, 1985. 

895 Baskin, T. I., W. R. Briggs, and M. lino, 
Can lateral redistribution of auxin account for 
phototropism in maize coleoptiles? Plant 
Physiol. 81, 306-309, 1986. 

921 Baskin, T. I., Redistribution of growth oc- 
curs during first-positive phototropism of the 
pea epicotyl, Planta, in press. 

Joseph A. Berry 
871 Greer, D., J. A. Berry, and O. Bjorkman, 
Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in intact bean 
leaves: role of light and temperature and re- 
quirement for chloroplast-protein synthesis 
during recovery, Planta 168, 253-260, 1986. 

892 Lucas, W. J., and J. A. Berry, eds., Inor- 
ganic Carbon Uptake by Aquatic Photosyn- 
thetic Organism, Proceedings of the 
International Workshops on Bicarbonate Use 
in Photosynthesis, Commemorating 75th An- 
niversary of University of California at Davis, 
American Society of Plant Physiologists, 1985. 

893 Mott, K. A., and J. A Berry, Effects of pH 
on activity and activation of ribulose 1, 5-bis- 
phosphate carboxylase at air level of C0 2 , Plant 
Physiol. 82, 77, 1986. 

907 Seemann, J. R., J. A. Berry, S. M. Freas, 
and M. A. Krump, Regulation of ribulose bis- 
phosphate carboxylase activity in vivo by a 
light-modulated inhibitor of catalysis, Proc. 
Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82, 8024-8028, 1985. 

919 Sharkey, T. D., J. R. Seemann, and J. A. 



Berry, Regulation of ribulose-1, 5,-bisphos- 
phate carboxylase activity in response to 
changing partial pressure C0 2 and light in 
Phaseolus vulgaris, Plant Physiol. 81, 788- 
791, 1986. 

922 Seemann, J. R., W. J. S. Downton, and J. 
A. Berry, Temperature and leaf osmotic po- 
tential as factors in the acclimation of photo- 
synthesis to high temperature in desert plants, 
Plant Physiol. 80, 926-930, 1986. 

941 Mott, K. A., R. G. Jensen, and J. A. Berry, 
Limitation of photosynthesis by RUBP regen- 
eration, in Biological Control of Photosyn- 
thesis, R. Marcelie, H. Clijsters, and M. Poucke, 
eds., pp. 33-43, Martinus Nijhoff Publ., Dor- 
drecht, The Netherlands, 1986. 

948 Lucas, W. J., and J. A. Berry, Inorganic 
carbon transport in aquatic photosynthetic or- 
ganisms, Physiol. Plant. (What's New in Plant 
Physiology) 65, 539-543, Copenhagen, 1985. 

950 Evans, J. R., T. D. Sharkey, J. A. Berry, 
and G. D. Farquhar, Carbon isotope discrim- 
ination measured concurrently with gas ex- 
change to investigate C0 2 diffusion in leaves 
of higher plants, Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 13, 
281-292, 1986. 

952 Berry, J. A., G. H. Lorimer, J. Pierce, J. 
R. Seemann, J. Meek, and S. Freas, Isolation, 
identification, and synthesis of carboxyarabin- 
itol-1-phosphate, a diurnal regulation of ribu- 
lose bisphosphate carboxylase activity, Proc. 
Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, in press. 

Grazyna Bialek-Bylka 

913 Bialek-Bylka, G., and J. S. Brown, Spec- 
troscopy of native chlorophyll-protein com- 
plexes embedded in polyvinyl alcohol films, 
Photobiochem. Photobiophys., in press. 

Olle Bjorkman 

871 Greer, D., J. A. Berry, and O. Bjorkman, 
Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in intact bean 
leaves: role of light and temperature and re- 
quirement for chloroplast-protein synthesis 
during recovery, Planta 168, 253-260, 1986. 

923 Bjorkman, O. , and B. Demmig, Photon yield 
of 2 evolution and chlorophyll fluorescence 
characteristics at 77K among vascular plants 
of diverse origins, Planta, in press. 

926 Demmig, B., and O. Bjorkman, Suscepti- 
bility to photoinhibition in leaves of higher plants 
as influenced by growth light regime, Planta, 
in press. 

947 Pearcy, R. W., O. Bjorkman, M. M. Cald- 
well, J. E. Keeley, R. L. Monson, and B. R. 
Strain, Carbon gain by plants in natural en- 
vironments, BioScience, in press. 



122 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



Salil Bose 

909 Fork, D. C, S. Bose, and S. K. Herbert, 
Radiationless transition as a possible mecha- 
nism of protection against photoinhibition in 
higher plants and a red alga, Photosyn. Res., 
in press. 

Winslow R. Briggs 

852 Baskin, T. I., M. lino, P. B. Green, and W. 
R. Briggs, High-resolution measurement of 
growth during first positive phototropism in 
maize, Plant Cell Environ. 8, 595-603, 1985. 

866A Kaufman, L. S. , J. C. Watson, W. R. Briggs, 
and W. F. Thompson, Photoregulation of nu- 
clear-encoded transcripts: blue-light regula- 
tion of specific transcript abundance, in 
Molecular Biology of the Photosynthetic Ap- 
paratus, R. Steinbeck et al., eds., pp. 367- 
372, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 
Cold Spring Harbor, New York, 1985. 

878 Shinkle, J. R., and W. R. Briggs, Physio- 
logical mechanism of the auxin-induced in- 
crease in light sensitivity of phytochrome- 
mediated growth responses in Avena coleop- 
tile sections, Plant Physiol. 79, 349-356, 1985. 

879 Roller, D., I. Levitan, and W. R. Briggs, 
The vectorial photo-excitation in solar-track- 
ing leaves of Lavatera cretica (Malvaceae), 
Photochem. Photobiol. 1>2, 717-723, 1985. 

880 Roller, D., I. Levitan, and W. R. Briggs, 
Components of vectorial photo-excitation in 
solar-tracking leaves of Lavatera cretica (Mal- 
vaceae), Physiol. Veget. 23, 913-920, 1985. 

896 Shinkle, J. R., and W. R. Briggs, Optimi- 
zation of red light-induced elongation in Av- 
ena coleoptile sections and properties of the 
phytochrome-mediated growth response, Plant 
Cell Environ. 9, 165-173, 1986. 

895 Baskin, T. I., W. R. Briggs, and M. lino, 
Can lateral redistribution of auxin account for 
phototropism in maize coleoptiles? Plant 
Physiol. 81, 306-309, 1986. 

901 Raufman, L. S., L. Roberts, W. R. Briggs, 
and W. F. Thompson, Phytochrome control of 
specific mRNA levels in developing pea buds: 
kinetics of accumulation, reciprocity and es- 
cape kinetics of the low fluence response, Plant 
Physiol. 81, 1033-1038, 1986. 

910 Shafer, E., and W. R. Briggs, Photomor- 
phogenesis from signal perception to gene 
expression, Photobiochem. Photobiophys., in 
press. 

934 Briggs, W. R., E. Mbsinger, A. Batschauer, 
R. Apel, and E. Schafer, Molecular events in 
photoregulated greening in barley leaves, in 
Molecular Biology of Plant Growth Control, 
J. E. Fox and M. Jacobs, eds., UCLA Sym- 
posia on Molecular and Cellular Biology, New 
Series, Vol. 44, Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York, 
in press. 

Jeanette S. Brown 
856 Acker, S., J. S. Brown, and J. Duranton, 



Absorption and circular dichroism spectra of 
chlorophyll and p carotene in photosynthetic 
system I, in Photosynthetica, in press. 

876 Brown, J. S., Chlorophyll absorption and 
fluorescence in photosynthetic membranes, in 
Model Building in Plant Physiology/Bio- 
chemistry, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 
in press. 

913 Bialek-Bylka, G., and J. S. Brown, Spec- 
troscopy of native chlorophyll-protein com- 
plexes embedded in polyvinyl alcohol films, 
Photobiochem. Photobiophys., in press. 

917 Duranton, J., and J. S. Brown, Evidence for 
a light-harvesting chlorophyll a-protein com- 
plex in a chlorophyll b-less barley mutant, 
Photosyn. Res., in press. 

933 Schoch, S., and J. S. Brown, The action of 
chlorophyllase on chlorophyll-protein com- 
plexes, /. Plant Physiol., in press. 

Robin L. Chazdon 

911 Chazdon, R. L., and R. W. Pearcy, Photo- 
synthetic responses to light variation in rain- 
forest species. I. Induction under constant and 
fluctuating light conditions, Oecologia 69 (Ber- 
lin), 517-523, 1986. 

912 Chazdon, R. L., and R. W. Pearcy, Photo- 
synthetic responses to light variation in rain- 
forest species. II. Carbon gain and 
photosynthetic efficiency during lightflecks, 
Oecologia 69 (Berlin), 524-531, 1986. 

Pamela B. Conley 

905 Conley P., P. Lemaux, T. L. Lomax, and 
A. R. Grossman, Genes encoding major light- 
harvesting polypeptides are clustered on the 
genome of the cyanobacteria Fremyella diplo- 
siphon, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 3924- 
3928, 1986. 

951 Grossman, A. R., P. G. Lemaux, and P. B. 
Conley, Regulated synthesis of phycobilisome 
components, Photochem. Photobiol., in press. 

Barbara Demmig 

923 Bjorkman, O. , and B. Demmig, Photon yield 
of 2 evolution and chlorophyll fluorescence 
characteristics at 77R among vascular plants 
of diverse origins, Planta, in press. 

926 Demmig, B., and O. Bjorkman, Suscepti- 
bility to photoinhibition in leaves of higher plants 
as influenced by growth light regime, Planta, 
in press. 

Michael S. Dobres 
928 Dobres, M. S., R. C. Elliott, J. C. Watson, 
and W. F. Thompson, A phytochrome regu- 
lated pea transcript encodes ferredoxin, Plant 
Mol. Biol., in press. 

Robert C. Elliott 
928 Dobres, M. S., R. C. Elliott, J. C. Watson, 
and W. F. Thompson, A phytochrome regu- 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



123 



lated pea transcript encodes ferredoxin, Plant 
Mol. Biol., in press. 

Christopher B. Field 

898 Field, C. B., Leaf-age effects on stomatal 
conductance, in Stomatal Fixation, E. Zieger, 
G. D. Farquhar, and I. R. Cowan, eds., Stan- 
ford University Press, in press. 

915 Chapin, T. S., A. Bloom, C. B. Field, and 
R. H. Waring, Plant responses to multiple en- 
vironmental factors, BioScience, in press. 

930 Field, C. B., and H. A. Mooney, Measuring 
photosynthesis under field conditions-Past and 
present approaches, in Scientific Instruments 
in Physiological Plant Ecology, P. J. Kramer, 
B. R. Strain, S. Funada, Y. Hashimoto, eds., 
Academic Press, New York, in press. 

931 Ehleringer, J. R., Z.-F. Lin, C. B. Field, 
and C.-Y. Kuo, Leaf carbon isotope ratios of 
plants from a sub-tropical monsoonal forest, 
Tree Physiol., in press. 

932 Ehleringer, J. R., Z.-F. Lin, C. B. Field, 
and C.-Y. Kuo, Leaf carbon isotope and min- 
eral composition in subtropical plants along an 
irradiance cline, Oecologia, in press. 

David C. Fork 

855 Fork, D. C, and P. Mohanty, Blue-green 
algae (cyanobacteria), red algae and crypto- 
monads, in Light Emission from Plants and 
Bacteria, Govindjee, J. Amesz, and D. C. Fork, 
eds., Academic Press, New York, in press. 

859 Smith, C. M., K. Satoh, and D. C. Fork, 
The effects of osmotic tissue dehydration and 
air drying on morphology and energy transfer 
in two species of Porphyra, Plant Physiol. 80, 
843-847, 1986. 

873 Williams, W. P., A. Sen, and D. C. Fork, 
Selective photobleaching of PSl-related chlo- 
rophylls in heat-stressed pea chloroplasts, 
Photosyn. Res. 10, 75-92, 1986. 

877 Fork, D. C, P. Mohanty, and S. Hoshina, 
The detection of early events in heat disrup- 
tion of thylakoid membranes by delayed light 
emission, Physiol. Veget. 23, 511-521, 1985. 

885 Fork, D. C, and K. Satoh, The control by 
state transitions of the distribution of excita- 
tion energy in photosynthesis, Annu. Rev. 
Plant Physiol. 37, 335-361, 1986. 
893A Fork, D. C, A. Sen, and W. P. Williams, 
The relationship between heat-stress and pho- 
tobleaching in green and blue-green algae, 
Photosyn. Res., in press. 

909 Fork, D. C, S. Bose, and S. K. Herbert, 
Radiationless transition as a possible mecha- 
nism of protection against photoinhibition in 
higher plants and a red alga, Photosyn. Res., 
in press. 

943 Fork, D. C, Photosynthesis, in The Science 
of Photobiology, K. C. Smith, ed., Plenum- 
Rosetta, New York, in press. 

944 Govindjee, J. Amesz, and D. C. Fork, eds., 
Light Emission from Plants and Bacteria, Ac- 
ademic Press, Orlando, Florida, in press. 



Suzan M. Freas 
907 Seemann, J. R., J. A. Berry, S. M. Freas, 
and M. A. Krump, Regulation of ribulose bis- 
phosphate carboxylase activity in vivo by a 
light-modulated inhibitor of catalysis, Proc. 
Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82, 8024-8028, 1985. 

Arthur R. Grossman 

868 Fawley, M., and A. R. Grossman, Polypep- 
tides of a light-harvesting complex of the dia- 
tom Phaeodactylum tricornutum are 
synthesized in the cytoplasm of the cell as pre- 
cursors, Plant Physiol. 81, 149-155, 1986. 

905 Conley P., P. Lemaux, T. L. Lomax, and 
A. R. Grossman, Genes encoding major light- 
harvesting polypeptides are clustered on the 
genome of the cyanobacteria Fremyella diplo- 
siphon, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 3924- 
3928, 1986. 

940 Mullet, J. E., R. R. Klein, and A. R. Gross- 
man, Optimization of protein synthesis in iso- 
lated higher plant chloroplasts (Identification 
of paused translation intermediates), Eur. J. 
Biochem, 155, 331-338, 1986. 

951 Grossman, A. R., P. G. Lemaux, and P. B. 
Conley, Regulated synthesis of phycobilisome 
components, Photochem. Photobiol., in press. 

964 Anderson, L., and A. R. Grossman, Phy- 
cocyanin genes in the cyanobacterium Syne- 
chocystis 6701 and a potential gene 
rearrangement in a pigment variant, in Pro- 
ceedings of the VII International Conference 
on Photosynthesis, Brown University, Prov- 
idence, Rhode Island, in press. 

Satoshi Hoshina 

877 Fork, D. C, P. Mohanty, and S. Hoshina, 
The detection of early events in heat disrup- 
tion of thylakoid membranes by delayed light 
emission, Physiol. Veget. 23, 511-521, 1985. 

Moritoshi lino 

852 Baskin, T. I., M. lino, P. B. Green, and W. 
R. Briggs, High-resolution measurement of 
growth during first positive phototropism in 
maize, Plant Cell Environ, 8, 595-603, 1985. 

864 lino, M., T. Ogawa, and E. Zeiger, Kinetic 
properties of the blue light response of sto- 
mata, Proc. Natl, Acad. Sci. USA 82, 8019- 
8023, 1985. 

895 Baskin, T. I., W. R. Briggs, and M. lino, 
Can lateral redistribution of auxin account for 
phototropism in maize coleoptiles? Plant 
Physiol, 81, 306-309, 1986. 

903 Shimazaki, K., M. lino, and W. Zeiger, Blue 
light-dependent proton extusion by guard-cell 
protoplasts of Vicia faba, Nature 319, 324- 
326, 1986. 

920 Zeiger, E. , M. lino, and T. Ogawa, The blue 
light response of stomata: pulse kinetics and 
some mechanistic implications, Photochem. 
Photobiol. 1+2, 759-763, 1985. 



124 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



Lon S. Kaufman 

866A Kaufman, L. S., J. C. Watson, W. R. Briggs, 
and W. F. Thompson, Photoregulation of nu- 
clear-encoded transcripts: blue-light regula- 
tion of specific transcript abundance, in 
Molecular Biology of the Photosynthetic Ap- 
paratus, K. Steinbeck, et al., 367-372, Cold 
Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring 
Harbor, New York, 1985. 
894 Thompson, W. F., L. S. Kaufman, and J. 
C. Watson, Induction of plant gene expression 
by light, BioEssays Vol. 3, No. 4, 153-159, 
1986. 

901 Kaufman, L. S., L. Roberts, W. R. Briggs, 
and W. F. Thompson, Phytochrome control of 
specific mRNA levels in developing pea buds: 
kinetics of accumulation, reciprocity and es- 
cape kinetics of the low fluence response, Plant 
Physiol. 81, 1033-1038, 1986. 

902 Kaufman, L. S., J. C. Watson, and W. F. 
Thompson, Light regulated changes in DNAse 
I hypersensitive sites in the rRNA genes of 
Pisum sativum, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 
in press. 

914 Watson, J. C, L. S. Kaufman, and W. F. 
Thompson, Developmental regulation of cy- 
tosine methylation in the nuclear ribosomal 
RNA genes of Pisum sativum, J. Mol. Biol. , 
in press. 

Peggy G. Lemaux 

905 Conley P., P. Lemaux, T. L. Lomax, and 
A. R. Grossman, Genes encoding major light- 
harvesting polypeptides are clustered on the 
genome of the cyanobacteria Fremyella diplo- 
siphon, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 3924- 
3928, 1986. 

951 Grossman, A. R., P. G. Lemaux, and P. B. 
Conley, Regulated synthesis of phycobilisome 
components, Photochem. Photobiol., in press. 

Jacob Levitt 

918 Levitt, J., Recovery of turgor by wilted, 
excised cabbage leaves in absence of water up- 
take: a new factor in drought acclimation, Plant 
Physiol. 82, 147-153, 1986. 

Terri L. Lomax 

862 Lomax, T. L., and R. J. Mehlhorn, Deter- 
mination of osmotic volumes and pH gradients 
of plant membrane and lipid vesicles using ESR 
spectroscopy, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 821, 106- 
114, 1985. 

905 Conley P., P. Lemaux, T. L. Lomax, and 
A. R. Grossman, Genes encoding major light- 
harvesting polypeptides are clustered on the 
genome of the cyanobacteria Fremyella diplo- 
siphon, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 3924- 
3928, 1986. 

Neil O. Polans 

869 Polans, N. O., N. F. Weeden, and W. F. 
Thompson, Inheritance, organization, and 



mapping of rbcS and cab multigene families in 
pea, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82, 5083- 
5087, 1985. 
874 Polans, N. O., N. Weeden, and W. F. 
Thompson, The distribution and inheritance 
and linkage relationships of ribosomal DNA 
spacer length variation in pea, Theor. Appl. 
Genet. 72, 289-295, 1986. 

Linda Roberts 
901 Kaufman, L. S., L. Roberts, W. R. Briggs, 
and W. F. Thompson, Phytochrome control of 
specific mRNA levels in developing pea buds: 
kinetics of accumulation, reciprocity and es- 
cape kinetics of the low fluence response, Plant 
Physiol. 81, 1033-1038, 1986. 

Siegrid Schoch 
933 Schoch, S., and J. S. Brown, The action of 
chlorophyllase on chlorophyll-protein com- 
plexes, /. Plant Physiol., in press. 

Arindam Sen 
873 Williams, W. P., A. Sen, and D. C. Fork, 
Selective photobleaching of PSl-related chlo- 
rophylls in heat-stressed pea chloroplasts, 
Photosyn. Res. 10, 75-92, 1986. 

James R. Shinkle 
878 Shinkle, J. R., and W. R. Briggs, Physio- 
logical mechanism of the auxin-induced in- 
crease in light sensitivity of phytochrome- 
mediated growth responses in Avena coleop- 
tile sections, Plant Physiol. 79. 349-356, 1985. 

896 Shinkle, J. R., and W. R. Briggs, Optimi- 
zation of red light-induced elongation in Av- 
ena coleoptile sections and properties of the 
phytochrome-mediated growth response, Plant 
Cell Environ. 9, 165-173, 1986. 

897 Shinkle, J. R., Photobiology of phyto- 
chrome-mediated growth responses in sections 
of stem tissue from etiolated oats and corn, 
Plant Physiol. 81, 533-537, 1986. 

David B. Stern 

889 Stern, D. B. and K. J. Newton, Isolation of 
plant mitochondrial RNA, in Methods of En- 
zymology Vol. 118, Plant Molecular Biology, 
A. Weissbach and H. Weissbach, eds., pp. 488- 
496, Academic Press, New York, 1986. 

906 Stern, D. B., A. Bang, and W. F. Thomp- 
son, The watermelon mitochondrial URF-1 
gene: evidence for a complex structure, Curr. 
Genet. 10, 857-869, 1986. 

924 Stern, D. B., and J. D. Palmer, Tripartite 
mitochondrial genome of spinach: physical 
structure, mitochondrial gene mapping, and 
locations of transposed chloroplast DNA se- 
quences, Nucl. Acids Res. H, No. 14, 1986. 

William F. Thompson 
866A Kaufman, L. S., J. C. Watson, W. R. Briggs, 
and W. F. Thompson, Photoregulation of nu- 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



125 



clear-encoded transcripts: blue-light regula- 
tion of specific transcript abundance, in 
Molecular Biology of the Photosynthetic Ap- 
paratus, K. Steinbeck, et al., eds, pp. 367- 
372, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 
Cold Spring Harbor, New York, 1986. 

869 Polans, N. 0., N. F. Weeden, and W. F. 
Thompson, The inheritance, organization, and 
mapping of rbcS and cab multigene families in 
pea, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82, 5083- 
5087, 1985. 

872 Watson, J. C, and W. F. Thompson, Pu- 
rification and restriction analysis of plant nu- 
clear DNA, Methods Enzymol. 118, 57-75, 1986. 

874 Polans, N. 0., N. Weeden, and W. F. 
Thompson, Distribution and inheritance and 
linkage relationships of ribosomal DNA spacer 
length variance in pea, Theor. Appl. Genet. 
72, 289-295, 1986. 

888 Flavell, R. B., D. B. Smith, and W. F. 
Thompson, Chromosome architecture: the dis- 
tribution of recombination sites, the structure 
of ribosomal DNA loci and the multiplicity of 
sequences containing inverted repeats, in Mo- 
lecular Form and Function of the Plant Gen- 
ome, L. van Vloten-Doting, G. S. P. Groot, 
and T. C. Hall, eds., pp. 1-14, Plenum Pub., 
New York, 1985. 

894 Thompson, W. F., L. S. Kaufman, and J. 
C. Watson, Induction of plant gene expres- 
sions by light, Bioessays Vol. 3, No. 4, 153- 
159, 1986. 

901 Kaufman, L. S., L. Roberts, W. R. Briggs, 
and W. F. Thompson, Phytochrome control of 
specific mRNA levels in developing pea buds: 
kinetics of accumulation, reciprocity and es- 
cape kinetics of the low fluence response, Plant 
Physiol. 81, 1033-1038, 1986. 

902 Kaufman, L. S., J. C. Watson, and W. F. 
Thompson, Light regulated changes in DNAse 
I hypersensitive sites in the rRNA genes of 
Pisum sativum, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 
in press. 

906 Stern, D. B., A. Bang, and W. F. Thomp- 
son, The watermelon mitochondrial URF-1 
gene: evidence for a complex structure, Curr. 
Genet. 10, 857-869, 1986. 

914 Watson, J. C, L. S. Kaufman, and W. F. 
Thompson, Developmental regulation of cy- 



tosine methylation in the nuclear ribosomal 
RNA genes of Pisum sativum, J. Mol. Biol., 
in press. 

928 Dobres, M. S., R. C. Elliott, J. C. Watson, 
and W. F. Thompson, A phytochrome regu- 
lated pea transcript encodes ferredoxin, Plant 
Mol. Biol., in press. 

939 Jorgenson, R. A., R. E. Cuellar, and W. F. 
Thompson, Structure and variation in ribo- 
somal RNA genes of peas. Characterization of 
a cloned rDNA repeat and chromosomal rDNA 
variants, Plant Mol. Biol., in press. 

John C. Watson 

866A Kaufman, L. S., J. C. Watson, W. R. Briggs, 
and W. F. Thompson, Photoregulation of nu- 
clear-encoded transcripts: blue-light regula- 
tion of specific transcript abundance, in 
Molecular Biology of the Photosynthetic Ap- 
paratus, K. Steinbeck, et al., eds., pp. 367- 
372, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 
Cold Spring Harbor, New York, 1985. 

872 Watson, J. C, and W. F. Thompson, Pu- 
rification and restriction analysis of plant nu- 
clear DNA, Methods Enzy mol. 118, 57-75, 1986. 

894 Thompson, W. F., L. S. Kaufman, and J. 
C. Watson, Induction of plant gene expres- 
sions by light, Bioessays Vol. 3, No. 4, 153- 
159, 1986. 

902 Kaufman, L. S., J. C. Watson, and W. F. 
Thompson, Light regulated changes in DNAse 
I hypersensitive sites in the rRNA genes of 
Pisum sativum, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 
in press. 

914 Watson, J. C, L. S. Kaufman, and W. F. 
Thompson, Developmental regulation of cy- 
tosine methylation in the nuclear ribosomal 
RNA genes of Pisum sativum, J. Mol. Biol., 
in press. 

928 Dobres, M. S., R. C. Elliott, J. C. Watson, 
and W. F. Thompson, A phytochrome regu- 
lated pea transcript encodes ferredoxin, Plant 
Mol. Biol., in press. 

Ian Woodrow 

929 Woodrow, I., Control of the rate of photo- 
synthetic carbon dioxide fixation, Biochim. 
Biophys. Acta 851, 181-192, 1986. 



DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY RESEARCH GROUP 



Roy J. Britten 

Britten, R. J., and E. H. Davidson, Hybri- 
disation strategy, in Nucleic Acid Hybridi- 
sation: A Practical Approach, B. D. Hames 
and S. J. Higgins, eds., Information Retrieval 
Ltd., Oxford, England, 1985. 

Katula, K. S., B. R. Hough-Evans, C. N. 

Flytzanis, A. P. McMahon, R. R. Franks, R. 



J. Britten, and E. H. Davidson, A sea urchin 
gene transfer system, in Banbury Report 20: 
Genetic Manipulation of the Early Mammal- 
ian Embryo, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory 
Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, 1985. 
_ Britten, R. J., Intraspecies genomic varia- 
tion, in Genetics, Development, and Evo- 



126 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



lution, J. P. Gustafson et al., eds., Plenum 
Pub., New York, 1986. 

. Britten, R. J., Rates of DNA sequence evo- 
lution differ between taxonomic groups, Sci- 
ence 231, 1393-1398, 1986. 
. Lee, J. J., F. J. Calzone, R. J. Britten, R. 
C. Angerer, and E. H. Davidson, Activation 
of sea urchin actin genes during embryoge- 



nesis: measurement of transcript accumulation 
from five different genes in Strongylocentrotus 
purpuratus, J. Mol. Biol. 188, 173-183, 1986. 
. Hwu, H. R. , J. W. Roberts, E. H. Davidson, 
and R. J. Britten, Insertion and/or deletion of 
many repeated DNA sequences in human and 
higher ape evolution, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 
USA 83, 3875-3879, 1986. 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



Reprints of the numbered publications listed 
below can be obtained at no charge from the 
Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, 5241 
Broad Branch Road, N. W., Washington, DC 
20015. When ordering, please give reprint 
number(s). 

Barbara Barreiro 

4872 Cameron, K. L., M. Cameron, and B. Bar- 
reiro, Origin of voluminous Mid-Tertiary ig- 
nimbrites of the Batopilas region, Chihuahua: 
implications for the formation of continental 
crust beneath the Sierra Madre Occidental, 
Geofisica Internacional 25, 39-59, 1986. 

Alan P. Boss 

4819 Boss, A. P., Phase transitions in star for- 
mation, Nature 318, 413, 1985. 

Boss, A. P., Bipolar flows, molecular gas 

disks, and the collapse and accretion of rotat- 
ing interstellar clouds, Astrophys. J. , in press. 

Boss, A. P., Formation of the moon, The 

Geograph. Mag., in press. 

Boss, A. P., The lowest mass stars, Sci. 

Reporter, in press. 

4821 Boss, A. P. , The origin of the moon, Science 
231, 341-345, 1986. 

4839 Boss, A. P., Protoearth mass shedding and 
the origin of the moon, Icarus 66, 330-340, 
1986. 

4871 Boss, A. P., Protostellar formation in ro- 
tating, interstellar clouds, V. Nonisothermal 
collapse and fragmentation, Astrophys. J. 
Suppl. Ser. 62, 519-552, 1986. 

4874 Boss, A. P., Theoretical determination of 
the minimum protostellar mass, in Astrophys- 
ics of Brown Dwarfs, M. Kafatos, R. S. Har- 
rington, and S. P. Maran, eds., pp. 206-211, 
Cambridge University Press, New York, 1986. 

Boss, A. P., Theory of collapse and proto- 

star formation, in Summer School on Inter- 
stellar Processes, D. Hollenbach and H. 
Thronson, eds., D. Reidel Publ. Co., Dor- 
drecht, The Netherlands, in press. 

Boss, A. P., and W. Benz, Origin of the 

moon, La Recherche, in press. 

4852 Boss, A. P., and S. J. Peale, Dynamical con- 



straints on the origin of the moon, in Origin 
of the Moon, W. K. Hartmann, R. J. Phillips, 
and G. J. Taylor, eds., pp. 59-102, Lunar and 
Planetary Institute, Houston, Texas, 1986. 
4867 Boss, A. P., and I. S. Sacks, High spatial 
resolution models of time-dependent, layered 
mantle convection, Geophys. J. Roy. Astron. 
Soc. 87, 241-264, 1986. 

4834 Durisen, R. H., R. A. Gingold, J. E. Toh- 
line, and A. P. Boss, Dynamic fission insta- 
bilities in rapidly rotating n = 3/2 polytropes: 
a comparison of results from finite-difference 
and smoothed particle hydrodynamics codes, 
Astrophys. J. 305, 281-308, 1986. 

Louis Brown 

4840 Barschall, H. H., and L. Brown, Early es- 
timates of the strength of the nuclear spin- 
orbit force, Found. Phys. 16, 115-124, 1986. 

4841 Brown, L., F. Tera, J. N. Valette-Silver, 
M. J. Pavich, J. Klein, and R. Middleton, Ap- 
plication of 10 Be to the study of erosion and 
sediment transport, in Proceedings of the 
Fourth Federal Interagency Sedimentation 
Conference, Vol. 1, Sect. 4, pp. 10-19, Sedi- 
mentation Sub-committee of the Interagency 
Advisory Committee on Water Data, U. S. 
Department of the Interior, Geological Sur- 
vey, Washington, D. C, 1986. 

4863 Pavich, M. J., L. Brown, J. Harden, J. Klein, 
and R. Middleton, 10 Be distribution in soils from 
Merced River terraces, California, Geochim. 
Cosmochim. Acta 50, 1727-1735, 1986. 

4830 Tera, F., L. Brown, J. Morris, I. S. Sacks, 
J. Klein, and R. Middleton, Sediment incor- 
poration in island-arc magmas: Inferences from 
10 Be, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 50, 535-550, 
1986. 

4870 Valette-Silver, J. N., L. Brown, J. Klein, 
and R. Middleton, Detection of erosion events 
using 10 Be profiles: example of the impact of 
agriculture on soil erosion in the Chesapeake 
Bay area (USA), Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 80, 
82-90, 1986. 

David Burstein 

4835 Burstein, D., V. C. Rubin, W. K. Ford, Jr., 
and B. C. Whitmore, Is the distribution of mass 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



127 



within spiral galaxies a function of galaxy en- 
vironment? Astrophys. J. 305, L11-L14, 1986. 

Richard W. Carlson 

4843 Hart, W. K., S. A. Mertzman, and R. W. 
Carlson, Late Cenozoic volcanic geology of the 
Jordan Valley-Owyhee River region, south- 
eastern Oregon, in Field Guidebook, Rocky 
Mountain Section (38th annual meeting held 
in Boise, Idaho), 28 pp., Rocky Mountain Sec- 
tion, Geological Society of America, Boise, 
Idaho, 1985. 

4842 Silver, P. G., R. W. Carlson, P. Bell, and 
P. Olson, Mantle structure and dynamics, Eos, 
Trans. Amer. Geophys. U. 66, 1193-1198, 1985. 

Carlson, R. W., Geochemistry of the sub- 
continental mantle, in Yearbook of Science and 
Technology, McGraw-Hill Co. , New York, in 
press. 

Carlson, R. W., and W. K. Hart, Miocene 

flood basalt volcanism in the northwestern 
United States, in Continental Flood Basalts, 
J. D. Macdougall, ed., D. Reidel Publ. Co., 
Dordrecht, The Netherlands, in press. 

Dudas, F.O., R. W. Carlson, and D. H. Eg- 

gler, Regional mid-Proterozoic enrichment of 
the subcontinental mantle source of igneous 
rocks from central Montana, Geology, in press. 

Hart, W. K., and R. W. Carlson, Tectonic 

controls on magma genesis and evolution in the 
northwestern United States, J. Volcanol. 
Geotherm. Res., in press, 1986. 

Winston W. Chan 

Silver, P. G., and W. W. Chan, Observa- 
tions of body-wave multipathing from broad- 
band seismograms: evidence for lower-mantle 
slab penetration beneath the Sea of Okhotsk, 
/. Geophys. Res. 91, in press. 

Robin Ciardullo 

Ford, H. C, 0. Dahari, G. H. Jacoby, P. 

C. Crane, and R. Ciardullo, Bubbles and braided 
jets in galaxies with compact radio nuclei, As- 
trophys. J. (Lett.), in press. 

Timothy J. Clarke 

James, D. E., T. J. Clarke, and R. P. Meyer, 

A study of seismic reflection imaging using mi- 
croearthquake sources, Tectonophysics, in 
press. 

/. Peter Davis 

Davis, J. P., Local eigenfrequency and its 

uncertainty inferred from fundamental sphe- 
roidal mode frequency shifts, Geophys. J. Roy. 
Astron. Soc, in press. 

4851 Davis, J. P., and I. H. Henson, Validity of 
the great circular average approximation for 
inversion of normal mode measurements, Geo- 
phys. J. Roy. Astron. Soc. 85, 69-92, 1986. 



Francis 0. Dudas 

Dudas, F.O., R. W. Carlson, and D. H. Eg- 

gler, Regional mid-Proterozoic enrichment of 
the subcontinental mantle source of igneous 
rocks from central Montana, Geology, in press. 

Lina M. Echeverria 

4833 Echeverria, L. M., and B. G. Aitken, Pyr- 
oclastic rocks: another manifestation of ultra- 
mafic volcanism on Gorgona Island, Colombia, 
Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 92, 428-436, 1986. 

Sonia Esperanga 

4822 Esperanca, S., and Z. Garfunkel, Ultramafic 
xenoliths from the Mt. Carmel area (Karem 
Maharal Volcano), Israel, Lithos 19, 43-49, 1986. 

4865 Esperanca, S., and J. R. Holloway, The or- 
igin of the high-K latites from Camp Creek, 
Arizona: constraints from experiments with 
variable f0 2 and aH 2 o, Contrib. Mineral. Pe- 
trol. 93, 504-512, 1986. 

W. Kent Ford, Jr. 

4835 Burstein, D., V. C. Rubin, W. K. Ford, Jr., 
and B. C. Whitmore, Is the distribution of mass 
within spiral galaxies a function of galaxy en- 
vironment? Astrophys. J. 305, L11-L14, 1986. 

4824 Giovanelli, R., M. P. Haynes, V. C. Rubin, 
and W. K. Ford, Jr., UGC 12591: the most 
rapidly rotating disk galaxy, Astrophys. J. 301, 
L7-L11, 1986. 

4838 Rubin, V. C, and W. K. Ford, Jr., On the 
ratio of [NII]/Ha in the nucleus of M33 and in 
the nuclei of other galaxies, Astrophys. J. 305, 
L35-L37, 1986. 

John A. Graham 

4849 Alvarez, H., L. Bronfman, R. Cohen, G. 
Garay, J. Graham, and P. Thaddeus, Sandqv- 
ist 187: a dense molecular cloud in Norma, As- 
trophys. J. 300, 756-765, 1986. 

4850 Graham, J. A. , Objects associated with low- 
mass star formation in the Gum nebula, As- 
trophys. J. 302, 352-362, 1986. 

4873 Graham, J. A., Summary: Opportunities for 
research with small telescopes, in Instrumen- 
tation and Research Programmes for Small 
Telescopes (International Astronomical Union 
Symposium 118, Christchurch, New Zealand, 
1985), J. B. Hearnshaw and P. L. Cottrell, 
eds., pp. 475-478, D. Reidel Publ. Co., Dor- 
drecht, The Netherlands, 1986. 

4825 Humphreys, R. M., and J. A. Graham, The 
M supergiants in NGC 300, Astron. J. 91, 522- 
529, 1986. 

Stanley R. Hart 

4828 Morris, J. D., and S. R. Hart, Isotopic and 
incompatible element constraints on the gen- 
esis of island arc volcanics from Cold Bay and 
Amak Island, Aleutians, and implications for 
mantle structure: reply to a critical comment 




Department of Terrestrial Magnetism staff, July 1986. First row (left to right): Nelson 
McWhorter, Glenn Poe, George Wetherill, Wendy Foard, Ines Cifuentes, Patricia Kenyon; second 
row: John Smith, Peter Davis, Julie Morris, Fouad Tera, Leah Monta, Sonia Esperanca, Mary 
Coder; third row: Kent Ford, Steven Shirey, Terry Stahl, Gary Bors, Gary Heldt, Louis Brown, 
Dorothy Dillin, Bennie Harris, Richard W. Carlson; fourth row: Alan Linde, Robin Ciardullo, 
Hiroki Sato, Timothy Clarke, Michael Acierno, David James, Paul Silver, Francois Schweizer, 
Gui-zhong Qi, Nino Simoni, Diglio Simoni; top row: John Schneider, Selwyn Sacks, Alan Boss, Ole 
Stecher, John Emler, William Key, Thomas Aldrich, John Graham, Georg Bartels, Michael 
Seemann. (Absent: Richard C. Carlson, David Dalton, Janice Dunlap, Deidre Hunter, Akiwata 
Mayi-Sawyer, Ben Pandit, Michael Rich, Vera Rubin.) 



by M. R. Perfit and R. W. Kay, Geochim. Cos- 
mochim. Acta 50, 483-487, 1986. 



northwestern United States, /. Volcanol. 
Geotherm. Res., in press, 1986. 



William K. Hart 

Carlson, R. W., and W. K. Hart, Miocene 

flood basalt volcanism in the northwestern 
United States, in Continental Flood Basalts, 
J. D. Macdougall, ed., D. Reidel Publ. Co., 
Dordrecht, The Netherlands, in press. 

4843 Hart, W. K., S. A. Mertzman, and R. W. 
Carlson, Late Cenozoic volcanic geology of the 
Jordan Valley-Owyhee River region, south- 
eastern Oregon, in Field Guidebook, Rocky 
Mountain Section (38th annual meeting held 
in Boise, Idaho), 28 pp., Rocky Mountain Sec- 
tion, Geological Society of America, Boise, 
Idaho, 1985. 

Hart, W. K., and R. W. Carlson, Tectonic 

controls on magma genesis and evolution in the 



Deidre A. Hunter 

4844 Hunter, D. A., and J. S. Gallagher III, In- 
frared colors of blue irregular galaxies, As- 
tron. J. 90, 1457-1463, 1985. 

4845 Hunter, D. A., and J. S. Gallagher III, Ir- 
regular galaxies with extended HI emission, 
Astron. J. 90, 1789-1795, 1985. 

4854 Hunter, D. A. , and J. S. Gallagher III, Star- 
forming properties and histories of dwarf ir- 
regular galaxies: down but not out, Astrophys. 
J. Suppl. Ser. 58, 533-560, 1985. 

4864 Gallagher, J. S., Ill, and D. A. Hunter, UBV 
colors of Virgo cluster irregular galaxies, As- 
tron. J. 92, 557-566, 1986. 

4836 Hunter, D. A. , and J. S. Gallagher III, Stel- 
lar populations and star formation in irregular 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



129 



galaxies, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 98, 5-28, 
1986. 

4829 Hunter, D. A., F. C. Gillett, J. S. Gallagher 
III, W. L. Rice, and F. J. Low, IRAS obser- 
vations of a small sample of blue irregular gal- 
axies, Astrophys. J. 303, 171-185, 1986. 

4831 Hunter, D. A., V. C. Rubin, and J. S. Gal- 
lagher III, Optical rotation velocities and im- 
ages of the spiral galaxy NGC 3198, Astron. 
J. 91, 1086-1090, 1986. 

Emi Ito 

4827 Ito, E., and R. J. Stern, Oxygen- and stron- 
tium-isotopic investigations of subduction zone 
volcanism: the case of the Volcano Arc and the 
Marianas Island Arc, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 
76, 312-320, 1986. 

Ito, E., W. M. White, and C. Gopel, The 0, 

Sr, Nd and Pb isotope geochemistry of MORB, 
Chem. Geol., in press. 

David E. James 

James, D. E., T. J. Clarke, and R. P. Meyer, 

A study of seismic reflection imaging using mi- 
croearthquake sources, Tectonophysics, in 
press. 

Patricia M. Kenyon 

4858 Kenyon, P. M., and D. L. Turcotte, Mor- 
phology of a delta prograding by bulk sediment 
transport, Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 96, 1457- 
1465, 1985. 

David C. Koo 

4853 Koo, D. C, Field galaxy evolution: short 
overview, prospects, and SAFER proposal, in 
Astronomy from Measuring Machines, I. N. 
Reid and P. C. Hewett, eds., pp. 112-117, 
Royal Greenwich Observatory, East Sussex, 
England, 1984. 

Koo, D. C, Multicolor photometry of field 

galaxies to B ~ 24, Astrophys. J. 311, in press. 

4846 Koo, D. C, R. G. Kron, and K. M. Cud- 
worth, Quasars to B > 22.5 in Selected Area 
57: a catalog of multicolor photometry, varia- 
bility, and astrometry, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pa- 
cific 98, 285-306, 1986. 

4826 Koo, D. C, R. G. Kron, D. Nanni, D. 
Trevese, and A. Vignato, A multicolor pho- 
tometric catalog of galaxies and stars in the 
field of the rich cluster II ZW 1305.4 + 2941 at 
z = 0.24, Astron. J. 91, 478-493, 1986. 

Typhoon Lee 

4823 Lee, T., and F. Tera, The meteoritic chro- 
mium isotopic composition and limits for ra- 
dioactive 53 Mn in the early solar system, 
Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 50, 199-206, 1986. 

Alan T. Linde 

4860 Johnston, M. J. S., R. D. Borcherdt, and A. 
T. Linde, Short-period strain (0.1-10 5 s): near- 



source strain field for an earthquake (M L 3.2) 
near San Juan Bautista, California, /. Geo- 
phys. Res. 91, 11,497-11,502, 1986. 
. Johnston, M. J. S., A. T. Linde, M. T. Glad- 
win, and R. D. Borcherdt, Fault failure with 
moderate earthquakes, Tectonophysics, in 
press. 



Stanley A. Mertzman 

4843 Hart, W. K., S. A. Mertzman, and R. W. 
Carlson, Late Cenozoic volcanic geology of the 
Jordan Valley-Owyhee River region, south- 
eastern Oregon, in Field Guidebook, Rocky 
Mountain Section (38th annual meeting held 
in Boise, Idaho), 28 pp., Rocky Mountain Sec- 
tion, Geological Society of America, Boise, 
Idaho, 1985. 

Julie D. Morris 

Morris, J., R. S. Harmon, F. Tera, L. Lo- 
pez-Escobar, J. Klein, and R. Middleton, 10 Be 
and Pb-isotope evidence for sediment subduc- 
tion in the southern Andes, 33-42°S, Chem. 
Geol., in press. 

4828 Morris, J. D., and S. R. Hart, Isotopic and 
incompatible element constraints on the gen- 
esis of island arc volcanics from Cold Bay and 
Amak Island, Aleutians, and implications for 
mantle structure: reply to a critical comment 
by M. R. Perfit and R. W. Kay, Geochim. Cos- 
mochim. Acta 50, 483-487, 1986. 

4830 Tera, F., L. Brown, J. Morris, I. S. Sacks, 
J. Klein, and R. Middleton, Sediment incor- 
poration in island-arc magmas: inferences from 
10 Be, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 50, 535-550, 
1986. 

Vera C. Rubin 

4835 Burstein, D., V. C. Rubin, W. K. Ford, Jr., 
and B. C. Whitmore, Is the distribution of mass 
within spiral galaxies a function of galaxy en- 
vironment? Astrophys. J. 305, L11-L14, 1986. 

4824 Giovanelli, R., M. P. Haynes, V. C. Rubin, 
and W. K. Ford, Jr., UGC 12591: the most 
rapidly rotating disk galaxy, Astrophys. J. 301, 
L7-L11, 1986. 

4831 Hunter, D. A., V. C. Rubin, and J. S. Gal- 
lagher III, Optical rotation velocities and im- 
ages of the spiral galaxy NGC 3198, Astron. 
J. 91, 1086-1090, 1986. 

Rubin, V. C, Constraints on the dark mat- 
ter from optical rotation curves, in Dark Mat- 
ter in the Universe (International Astronomical 
Union Symposium 117, Princeton, New Jer- 
sey, 1985), J. Knapp and J. Kormendy, eds., 
D. Reidel Publ. Co., Dordrecht, The Neth- 
erlands, in press. 

4859 Rubin, V. C, Dark matter in the universe, 
in Highlights of Astronomy, Vol. 7, J. -P. 
Swings, ed., pp. 27-38, D. Reidel Publ. Co., 
Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1986. 

4869 Rubin, V. C, What's the matter in spiral 
galaxies? in Highlights of Modern Astrophys- 



130 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



ics: Concepts and Controversies (symposium 
held in honor of Ed Salpeter), S. L. Shapiro 
and S. A. Teukolsky, eds., pp. 269-297, John 
Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1986. 

4855 Rubin, V. C, Women's work: for women in 
science, a fair shake is still elusive, Science 86, 
7, 58-65, 1986. 

4838 Rubin, V. C, and W. K. Ford, Jr., On the 
ratio of [NII]/Ha in the nucleus of M33 and in 
the nuclei of other galaxies, Astrophys. J. 305, 
L35-L37, 1986. 

Whitmore, B. C, D. B. McElroy, F. 

Schweizer, and V. C. Rubin, Distribution of 
dark matter in polar-ring galaxies, in Dark 
Matter in the Universe, (International Astro- 
nomical Union Symposium 117, Princeton, New 
Jersey, 1985), J. Knapp and J. Kormendy, eds., 
D. Reidel Publ. Co., Dordrecht, The Neth- 
erlands, in press. 

/. Selwyn Sacks 

4867 Boss, A. P., and I. S. Sacks, High spatial 
resolution models of time-dependent, layered 
mantle convection, Geophys. J. Roy. Astron. 
Soc. 87, 241-264, 1986. 

4866 Snoke, J. A., and I. S. Sacks, Seismic mo- 
delling of lateral heterogeneity at the base of 
the mantle, Geophys. J. Roy. Astron. Soc. 86, 
801-814, 1986. 

4830 Tera, F., L. Brown, J. Morris, I. S. Sacks, 
J. Klein, and R. Middleton, Sediment incor- 
poration in island-arc magmas: inferences from 
10 Be, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 50, 535-550, 
1986. 



Matter in the Universe, (International Astro- 
nomical Union Symposium 117, Princeton, New 
Jersey, 1985), J. Knapp and J. Kormendy, eds., 
D. Reidel Publ. Co., Dordrecht, Holland, The 
Netherlands, in press. 

_ Whitmore, B. C, D. B. McElroy, and F. 
Schweizer, The shape of the dark halo in polar- 
ring galaxies, Astrophys. J. 31k, in press. 



Steven B. Shirey 

Shirey, S. B., J. L. Banner, and G. N. Han- 
son, Cation-exchange column calibration for Sr 
and the REE by EDTA titration, Isotope 
Geoscience, in press. 

Shirey, S. B., J. F. Bender, and C. H. Lang- 

muir, Three-component chemical and isotopic 
heterogeneity near the oceanographer trans- 
form, Mid- Atlantic Ridge: evidence for recy- 
cling of continental lithosphere, Nature, in 
press. 

Shirey, S. B., and G. N. Hanson, Mantle 

heterogeneity and crustal recycling in Archean 
granite-greenstone belts: evidence from Nd 
isotopes and trace elements in the Rainy Lake 
area, Ontario, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 50, 
in press. 

Southwick, D. L., K. J. Schulz, R. W. Ojak- 

angas, R. L. Bauer, S. B. Shirey, and G. N. 
Hanson, Archean granite greenstone terrane, 
Lake Superior Region, in Precambrian: Con- 
terminous U.S., The Decade of North Amer- 
ican Geology series, Vol. C-2, J. C. Reed, Jr. 
et al., eds., Geological Society of America, 
Boulder, Colorado, in press, 1987. 



Hiroki Sato 

4856 Sato, H., and M. H. Manghnani, Ultrasonic 
measurements of V p and Q p : relaxation spec- 
trum of complex modulus on basalt melts, Phys. 
Earth Planet. Interiors hi, 18-33, 1985. 

4861 Manghnani, M. H., H. Sato, and C. S. Rai, 
Ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measure- 
ments on basalt melts to 1500°C: role of com- 
position and structure in the visoelastic 
properties, /. Geophys. Res. 91, 9333-9342, 
1986. 

4857 Sato, H., High temperature a.c. electrical 
properties of olivine single crystal with vary- 
ing oxygen partial pressure: implications for 
the point defect chemistry, Phys. Earth Planet. 
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4862 Sato, H., M. H. Manghnani, B. R. Lienert, 
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Paul G. Silver 

4842 Silver, P. G., R. W. Carlson, P. Bell, and 
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4837 Riedesel, M. A., T. H. Jordan, A. F. Shee- 
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Silver, P. G., and W. W. Chan, Observa- 
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/. Arthur Snoke 

4866 Snoke, J. A., and I. S. Sacks, Seismic mo- 
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the mantle, Geophys. J. Roy. Astron. Soc. 86, 
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Frangois Schweizer 

4820 Schweizer, F., Colliding and merging gal- 
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Whitmore, B. C, D. B. McElroy, F. 

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Robert J. Stern 

4827 Ito, E., and R. J. Stern, Oxygen- and stron- 
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MOUNT WILSON AND LAS CAMPANAS OBSERVATORIES 



Limited reprint supplies are available only 
for references preceded by an asterisk. Please 
order by reprint number. Address requests 
to the Editor, Mount Wilson and Las Cam- 
panas Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara 
Street, Pasadena, CA, 91101-1292. 



Halton C. Arp 

Arp, H. C, and B. F. Madore, A Catalogue 

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3012 Arp, H., Relation of the jet in M87to nearby 



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galaxies in the Virgo cluster, J. Astrophys. 
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2880 Arp, H., A corrected velocity for the local 
standard of rest by fitting to the mean redshift 
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*2752 Arp, H., and 0. Duhalde, Quasars near NGC 
520, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 97, 1149-1157, 
1985. 
2958 Stocke, J. T., J. Liebert, G. Schmidt, I. M. 
Gioia, T. Maccaro, R. E. Schild, D. Maccagni, 
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*2965 Sulentic, J. W., and H. Arp, Evidence for 
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2832 Arp, H., and A. Sandage, Spectra of the two 
brightest objects in the amorphous galaxy NGC 
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90, 1163-1171, 1985. 

Todd A. Boroson 

2895 Leibert, J. W., T. A. Boroson, and M. S. 
Giampapa, New spectrophotometry of the ex- 
tremely cool proper motion star LHS 2924, 
Astrophys. J., in press. 

3011 Fillmore, J., T. A. Boroson, and A. Dres- 
sier, Internal kinematics of spiral galaxies: gas 
and stellar rotation curves and dispersion pro- 
files, Astrophys. J. 302, 208-233, 1986. 

Margon, B., T. A. Boroson, G. A. Chanan, 

I. B. Thompson, and D. P. Schneider, Spec- 
troscopy of six x-ray selected BL Lacertae 
candidates, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac, in press. 

John E. Boy den 

*3008 Chapman, G. A., and J. E. Boyden, Solar 
irradiance variations derived from magneto- 
grams, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 302, L71-L73, 
1986. 

David H. Bruning 

2993 Bruning, D. H., and B. LaBonte, Variations 
of the asymmetry of disk-integrated solar line 
profiles, Solar Phys. 97, 1-7, 1985. 

Belva Campbell 

2987 Campbell, B., and S. E. Persson, Optical 
images of star formation regions, Canadian J. 
Phys. 64, 387-391, 1986. 

2990 Campbell, B., Deep optical imaging of star 
forming regions with bipolar outflows, Pro- 
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May 15-16, 1985, A. D. Haschick, ed., Hay- 
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2989 Campbell, B., S. E. Persson, and P. J. 
McGregor, Images of star-forming regions. I. 
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outflow source GL 490, Astrophys. J. 305, 336- 
352, 1986. 



Gary A. Chapman 

*3008 Chapman, G. A., and J. E. Boyden, Solar 
irradiance variations derived from magneto- 
grams, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 302, L71-L73, 
1986. 

Gary S. Da Costa 

3003 Da Costa, G. S., and K. C. Freeman, The 
dynamics of 47 Tucanae, Proceedings of IAU 
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69-72, D. Reidel Publ. Co., Dordrecht, The 
Netherlands, 1985. 

Alan Dressier 
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R. Davies, S. M. Faber, G. Wegner, and R. 
Terlevich, Spectroscopy and photometry of el- 
liptical galaxies. I. New distance estimator, 
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3009 Burstein, D., R. L. Davies, A. Dressier, S. 
M. Faber, D. Lynden-Bell, R. Terlevich, and 
G. Wegner, Elliptical galaxies and non-uni- 
formities in the Hubble flow, in Galaxy Dis- 
tances and Deviations from Universal 
Expansion (Proceedings from the NATO Ad- 
vanced Study Institute held January 13-17, 
1986), B. F. Madore, and R. B. Tully, eds., 
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erlands, 1986. 
2972 Dressier, A. , Studies of cluster galaxies at 
large lookback times, in Spectral Evolution of 
Galaxies, Astrophys. and Space Science Li- 
brary v. 122 (Proceedings of the Fourth Work- 
shop of the Advanced School of Astronomy of 
the "Ettore Majorana" Centre for Scientific 
Culture, Erice, Italy), C. Choisi and A. Ren- 
zini, eds., pp. 375-389, D. Reidel Publ. Co., 
The Netherlands, 1986. 

*2996 Dressier, A., P. L. Schechter, and J. A. 
Rose, The mass of the isolated elliptical NGC 
720 as determined from the dynamics of its 
companions, Astron. J. 91, 1058-1061, 1986. 
3011 Fillmore, J. A., T. A. Boroson, and A. Dres- 
sier, Internal kinematics of spiral galaxies: gas 
and stellar rotation curves and dispersion pro- 
files, Astrophys. J. 302, 208-233, 1986. 

*2964 Dressier, A., The morphological types and 
orbits of H I-deficient spirals in clusters of 
galaxies, Astrophys. J. 301, 35-43, 1986. 

*2974 Bothun, G. D., and A. Dressier, Blue disk 
galaxies in the Coma cluster: analogs to z = 
0.5 cluster members? Astrophys. J. 301, 57- 
64, 1986. 

Windhorst, R. A., A. Dressier, and D. C. 

Koo, Ultradeep optical identifications and 
spectroscopy of faint radio galaxies, in IAU 
Symposium No. 12U, Observational Cosmol- 
ogy, G. Burbidge and L. Z. Fang, eds., D. 
Reidel Publ. Co. , The Netherlands, in press. 

Douglas K. Duncan 

Kemp, J. C, G. D. Henson, D. J. Kraus, I. 

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2979 Giraud, E., Galaxy morphology, surface 



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Michael D. Gregg 

Bertola, F., M. D. Gregg, J. E. Gunn, and 

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Roger Griffin 

3007 Griffin, R., and R. Griffin, The Be II X3130 
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Jerome Kristian 

3019 van Gorkom, J. H., P. L. Schechter, and J. 
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2971 Mould, J., and J. Kristian, The stellar pop- 
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William E. Kunkel 

Irwin, M. J., W. E. Kunkel, and S. Demers, 

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Demers, S., W. E. Kunkel, and M. J. Irwin, 

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S. Eric Persson 

Geballe, T. R., and S. E. Persson, Emission 

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2987 Campbell, B., and S. E. Persson, Optical 
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2982 Persson, S. E., High density gas in bipolar 
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2989 Campbell, B., S. E. Persson, and P. J. 
McGregor, Images of star-forming regions. I. 
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outflow source GL 490, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 
303, 336-352, 1986. 

Soifer, B. T., D. B. Sanders, G. Neuge- 

bauer, G. E. Danielson, C. J. Lonsdale, B. F. 
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function and space density of the most lumi- 
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2991 Geballe, T. R., S. E. Persson, T. Simon, C. 




The new Echelle spectrograph and its makers, in Stephen Shectman's lab at the 
Observatories (May 1986). Front row (left to right): Bob Georgen, Phil Friswold, 
Harvey Crist; back row: Estuardo Vasquez, Shectman, Jill Bechtold, Chris Price, 
Steve Knapp. 



J. Lonsdale, and P. J. McGregor, Comparison 
of 2.1 and 3.8 micron line profiles of shocked 
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2992 Elias, J. H., K. Matthews, G. Neugebauer, 
and S. E. Persson, Type I supernovae in the 
infrared and their use as distance indicators, 
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Allan Sandage 

3021 Sandage, A., and Fouts, G., New subdwarfs. 
VI. Kinematics of 1125 high proper motion stars 
and the collapse of the Galaxy, Astron. J. , in 
press. 

Tammann, G. A., B. Binggeli, and A. San- 
dage, Studies of the Virgo cluster. VI. The 
velocity distributions, Astron. J., in press. 

3005 Sandage, A., The population concept, glob- 
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2980 Sandage, A. , The redshift-distance relation. 
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19, in press. 

2973 Sandage, A., Star formation rates, galaxy 
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2981 Sandage, A., Brightest stars in galaxies as 
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Sandage, A., The classification and evolu- 



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2950 Sandage, A., and G. A. Tammann, The dy- 
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2994 Sandage, A., and C. Kowal, New subdwarfs. 

IV. UBV photometry of 1690 high proper mo- 
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2998 Fouts, G., and Sandage, A., New subdwarfs. 

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2986 Sandage, A. , The brightest stars in nearby 
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Paul L. Schechter 

3019 van Gorkom, J. H., P. L. Schechter, and J. 
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2996 Dressier, A., P. L. Schechter, and J. A. 
Rose, The mass of the isolated elliptical NGC 
720 as determined from the dynamics of its 
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Thomas Y. Steiman-Cameron 
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GEOPHYSICAL LABORATORY 



Reprints of the numbered publications listed 
below are available at no charge from the 
Librarian, Geophysical Laboratory, 2801 Up- 
ton St., N.W., Washington, DC 20008. Please 
give reprint number(s) when ordering. 

Andrew Y. Au 

1965 Au, A. Y., and R. M. Hazen, Polyhedral 
modeling of the elastic properties of corundum 
(a-Al 2 3 ) and chrysoberyl (Al 2 Be0 4 ), Geo- 
phys. Res. Lett. 12, 725-728, 1985. 

1975 Hazen, R. M., and A. Y. Au, High-pressure 
crystal chemistry of phenakite (Be 2 Si0 4 ) and 



bertrandite (Be 4 Si 2 07(OH)2), Phys. Chem. 
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1962 Sharma, S. K., H. K. Mao, P. M. Bell, and 
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tion of the ruby pressure gauge to 800 kbar 
under quasihydrostatic conditions, J. Geo- 
phys. Res. 91, B5, 4673-4676, 1986. 

1971 Jephcoat, A. P., H. K. Mao, and P. M. Bell, 
The static compression of iron to 78 GPa with 
rare gas solids as pressure-transmitting me- 
dia, J. Geophys. Res. 91, B5, 4677-4684, 1986. 

1972 Hemley, R. J., H. K. Mao, P. M. Bell, and 
S. Akimoto, Lattice vibrations of high-pres- 
sure Si0 2 phases: Raman spectrum of syn- 
thetic stishovite, PhysicaB 139-UO, 455-457, 
1986. (No reprints available.) 

1974 Bell, P. M., H. K. Mao, and R. J. Hemley, 
Observations of solid H 2 , D 2 , and N 2 at pres- 
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compression of gold and copper and calibration 



of the ruby pressure scale to pressures to 1.8 
megabars, in Shock Waves in Condensed Mat- 
ter: Proceedings of the Fourth American 
Physical Society (APS) Topical Conference on 
Shock Waves in Condensed Matter, July 22- 
25, 1985, Spokane, Washington, Y. Gupta, ed., 
pp. 125-130, Plenum Pub., New York, 1986. 
1993 Hemley, R. J., H. K. Mao, and E. C. T. 
Chao, Raman spectrum of natural and syn- 
thetic stishovite, Phys. Chem. Minerals 13, 
285-290, 1986. 

1998 Ross, M. , H. K. Mao, P. M. Bell, and J. Xu, 
The equation of state of dense argon: a com- 
parison of shock and static studies, /. Phys. 
Chem. 85, 1028-1033, 1986. 

Jephcoat, A. P., H. K. Mao, and P. M. Bell, 

Operation of the megabar diamond-anvil cell 
in Hydrothermal Experimental Techniques, 
H. L. Barnes and G. Ulmer, eds., chapter 19, 
Wiley-Interscience, New York, in press. 

1996 Hemley, R. J., H. K. Mao, P. M. Bell, and 
B. O. Mysen, Raman spectroscopy of Si0 2 glass 
at high pressure, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 747-750, 
1986. 

Mao, H. K., R. J. Hemley, and E. C. T. 

Chao, The application of micro-Raman spec- 
troscopy to analysis and identification of min- 
erals in thin section, /. Scanning Electron 
Microscopy, in press. 

Joseph W. E. Mariathasan 

1967 Mariathasan, J. W. E., R. M. Hazen, and 
L. W. Finger, Crystal structure of the high- 
pressure form of BiV0 4 , Phase Transitions 6, 
165-174, 1986. 

Gregory E. Muncill 

Muncill, G. E., and A. C. Lasaga, Crystal 

growth kinetics of plagioclase in igneous sys- 
tems: I. One-atmosphere experiments and ap- 
plication of a simplified growth model, Amer. 
Mineral. , in press. 

Bj0rn Mysen 

1986 Mysen, B., Structure and petrologically im- 
portant properties of silicate melts relevant to 
natural magmatic liquids, in Mineralogical As- 
sociation of Canada (MAC) Short Course 
Handbook, Volume 12,, C. M. Scarfe, ed., 
chapter 7, pp. 180-209, Mineralogical Asso- 
ciation of Canada, Ottawa, 1986. (No reprints 
available.) 

1996 Hemley, R. J., H. K. Mao, P. M. Bell, and 
B. O. Mysen, Raman spectroscopy of Si0 2 glass 
at high pressure, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 747-750, 
1986. 

1999 Mysen, B. O., and D. Virgo, Volatiles in 
silicate melts at high pressure and tempera- 
ture: 1. Interactions between OH groups and 
Si 4+ , Al 3+ , Ca 2+ , Na + , and H + , Chem. Geol., 
in press. 

2002 Mysen, B. O., and D. Virgo, Volatiles in 



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141 



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ture: 2. Water in melts along the join NaA10 2 - 
Si0 2 and a comparison of solubility mecha- 
nisms of water and fluorine, Chem. Geol., in 
press. 

2008 Mysen, B. 0., Magmatic silicate melts: Re- 
lations between bulk composition, structure and 
properties, in Magmatic Processes: Physico- 
chemical Principles, B. 0. Mysen, ed., Spec. 
Pub. No. 1, The Geochemical Society, in press. 

2010 Scarfe, C. M., B. O. Mysen, and D. Virgo, 
Pressure dependence of the viscosity of silicate 
melts, in Magmatic Processes: Physicochem- 
ical principles, B. 0. Mysen, ed., Spec. Pub. 
No. 1, The Geochemical Society, in press. 

Mysen, B. 0., Relations between structure, 

redox equilibria of iron, and properties of mag- 
matic liquids, in Advances in Physical Geo- 
chemistry, L. L. Perchukand I. Kushiro, eds., 
Springer- Verlag, New York, in press. 

Pascal Richet 

1970 Richet, P., and Y. Bottinga, Thermochem- 
ical properties of silicate glasses and liquids: a 
review, Rev. Geophys. 2J>, 1-25, 1986. 

Douglas Rumble HI 

1981 Rumble, D., Ill, and T. C. Hoering, Carbon 
isotope geochemistry of graphite vein deposits 
from New Hampshire, U.S.A., Geochim. Cos- 
mochim. Acta 50, 1239-1247, 1986. 

1989 Rumble, D., Ill, J. M. Ferry, and T. C. 
Hoering, Oxygen isotope geochemistry of hy- 
drothermally-altered synmetamorphic grani- 
tic rocks from south-central Maine, U.S.A., 
Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 93, 420-428, 1986. 

1992 Duke, E. F., and D. Rumble III, Textural 
and isotopic variations in plutonic rocks, south- 
central New Hampshire, Contrib. Mineral. 
Petrol. 93, 409-419, 1986. 

1994 Rumble, D., Ill, E. F. Duke, and T. C. 
Hoering, Hydrothermal graphite in New 
Hampshire: Evidence of carbon mobility dur- 
ing regional metamorphism, Geology 1J>, 452- 
455, 1986. 

Spear, F. S., and D. Rumble III, Pressure, 

temperature and structural evolution of the 
Orfordville Belt, west-central New Hamp- 
shire, J. Petrol. , in press. 

Christopher M. Scarfe 

2010 Scarfe, C. M., B. O. Mysen, and D. Virgo, 
Pressure dependence of the viscosity of silicate 
melts, in Magmatic Processes: Physicochem- 
ical Principles, B. O. Mysen, ed., Spec. Pub. 
No. 1, The Geochemical Society, in press. 

Daniel J. Schulze 

1973 Schulze, D. J., Calcium anomalies in the 
mantle and a possible subducted metaserpen- 
tinite origin for diamonds, Nature 319, 483- 
485, 1986. 



Shiv K. Sharma 

1962 Sharma, S. K., H. K. Mao, P. M. Bell, and 
J. A. Xu, Measurement of stress in diamond 
anvils with micro-Raman spectroscopy, J. Ra- 
man Spectros. 16, 350-352, 1985. 

Martin R. Sharpe 

1990 Irvine, T. N., and M. R. Sharpe, Magma 
mixing and the origin of stratiform oxide ore 
zones in the Bushveld and Stillwater Com- 
plexes, in Metallogeny of Basic and Ultrabasic 
Rocks, M.J. Gallagere^aL, eds., pp. 183-198, 
Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, London, 
1986. (No reprints available.) 

Douglas Smith 

1969 Smith, D., and F. R. Boyd, Compositional 
heterogeneities in a high-temperature lher- 
zolite nodule and implications for mantle pro- 
cesses, in Mantle Xenoliths, P. H. Nixon, ed., 
J. Wiley & Sons, New York, in press. (No 
reprints will be available.) 

Frank S. Spear 

Spear, F. S., and C. Page Chamberlain, 

Metamorphic and tectonic evolution of the Fall 
Mountain Nappa Complex and adjacent Mer- 
rimack Synclinorium, In International Miner- 
alogical Association Guidebook to New 
England, P. Robinson et al., eds., University 
of Massachusetts, Amherst, 1986. 

Spear, F. S., and D. Rumble III, Pressure, 

temperature and structural evolution of the 
Orfordville Belt, west-central New Hamp- 
shire, /. Petrol., in press. 

E. Kent Sprague 

Fogel, M. L., E. K. Sprague, A. P. Gize, 

and R. W. Frey, Diagenesis of organic matter 
in Georgia salt marshes, Geochim. Cosmo- 
chim. Acta, in press. 

Thomas W. Stafford, Jr. 

Stafford, T. W., Jr., A. J. T. Jull, K. Bren- 

del, R. C. Duhamel, and D. Donahue, Study 
of radiocarbon dating accuracy at the Univer- 
sity of Arizona NSF accelerator facility for ra- 
dioisotope analysis, Radiocarbon, in press. 

Stafford, T. W., Jr., and R. A. Tyson, Ac- 
celerator radiocarbon dates on charcoal and 
shell from the Del Mar Early Man site, Cali- 
fornia, Amer. Antiq., in press. 

David Virgo 

1999 Mysen, B. O., and D. Virgo, Volatiles in 
silicate melts at high pressure and tempera- 
ture: 1. Interactions between OH groups and 
Si 4 + , Al 3+ , Ca 2+ , Na + , and H + , Chem. Geol., 
in press. 

2002 Mysen, B. O., and D. Virgo, Volatiles in 
silicate melts at high pressure and tempera- 
ture: 2. Water in melts along the join NaA10 2 - 



142 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



Si0 2 and a comparison of solubility mecha- 
nisms of water and fluorine, Chem. Geol., in 
press. 

2010 Scarfe, C. M., B. 0. Mysen, and D. Virgo, 
Pressure dependence of the viscosity of silicate 
melts, in Magmatic Processes: Physicochem- 
ical Principles, B. 0. Mysen, ed., Spec. Pub. 
No. 1, The Geochemical Society, in press. 

Dingwell, D. B. , and D. Virgo, Viscosity and 

redox equilibria in iron-bearing silicate melts: 
The system Na 2 0-FeO-Fe 2 03-Si02, Geochim. 
Cosmochim. Acta, in press. 

Hofmeister, A. M., T. C. Hoering, and D. 

Virgo, Vibrational spectroscopy of beryllium 
aluminosilicates: Heat capacity calculations from 
band assignments, Phys. Chem. Minerals, in 
press. 

Ji-an Xu 

1962 Sharma, S. K., H. K. Mao, P. M. Bell, and 
J. A. Xu, Measurement of stress in diamond 
anvils with micro-Raman spectroscopy, /. Ra- 
man Spectros. 16, 350-352, 1985. 

1968 Mao, H. K., J. Xu, and P. M. Bell, Calibra- 
tion of the ruby pressure gauge to 800 kbar 
under quasihydrostatic conditions, J. Geo- 
phys. Res. 91, B5, 4673-4676, 1986. 

1984 Xu, J. A., H. K. Mao, and P. M. Bell, High 
pressure ruby and diamond fluorescence: Ob- 
servations at 0.21 to 0.55 terapascal, Science 
232, 1404-1406, 1986. 



1988 Bell, P. M., J. Xu, and H. K. Mao, Static 
compression of gold and copper and calibration 
of the ruby pressure scale to pressures to 1.8 
megabars, in Shock Waves in Condensed Mat- 
ter: Proceedings of the Fourth American 
Physical Society (APS) Topical Conference on 
Shock Waves in Condensed Matter, July 22- 
25, 1985, Spokane, Washington, Y. Gupta, ed., 
pp. 125-130, Plenum Pub., New York, in press. 

1998 Ross, M. , H. K. Mao, P. M. Bell, and J. Xu, 
The equation of state of dense argon: a com- 
parison of shock and static studies, /. Chem. 
Phys. 85, 1028-1033, 1986. (No reprints avail- 
able.) 

Hatten S. Yoder, Jr. 

1979 Yoder, H. S., Jr., Trends in the education 

of earth scientists, /. Geol. Educ. 34, 166-173, 

1986. 

1982 Boctor, N. Z., and H. S. Yoder, Jr., Pe- 
trology of some melilite-bearing rocks from Cape 
Province, Republic of South Africa: relation- 
ship to kimberlites, Amer. J. Sci. 286, 513- 
539, 1986. 

1983 Yoder, H. S., Jr., and F. Chayes, Linear 
alkali correlation in oceanic alkali basalts, Bull. 
Geol. Soc. Finland 58 Part 1, (Centennial Is- 
sue), 81-94, 1986. 

2004 Yoder, H. S. , Jr. , Potassium-rich rocks: phase 
analysis and heteromorphic relations, /. Pe- 
trol. 27, 1215-1228, 1986. 



ADMINISTRATION 



James D. Ebert 

Ebert, J. D., The life sciences in a conserv- 
ing society: enhancing the quality of life (in 
Japanese), Bioscience and Industry H, 944- 
956, 1986. 

Ebert, J. D., The embryogenesis of em- 
bryology (a review of A History of Embryol- 
ogy: The Eighth Symposium of the British 
Society for Developmental Biology , T. J. Haider 
et al., eds., Cambridge University Press, 1986), 
in Cell 47, 159-160, 1986. 



Margaret L. A. MacVicar 

MacVicar, M. L. A., subject and overview 

ed. for superconducting materials, Encyclo- 
pedia of Materials Science and Engineering, 
Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1986. 

MacVicar, M. L. A., and P. Wyatt, "Brakes," 

World Book Encyclopedia, 1986. 

MacVicar, M. L. A., and P. Wyatt, "Car- 
buretor," World Book Encyclopedia, 1986. 

MacVicar, M. L. A., and E. Fine, "Engi- 
neering," World Book Encyclopedia, 1986. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE INSTITUTION 



Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 
84., viii + 198 pages, 36 illustrations, December 
1985. 

Carnegie Institution of Washington, informa- 
tional booklet, 24 pages, 20 illustrations, Septem- 
ber 1985. 

CIW Newsletter, issued in November 1985, April 
1986, and June 1986. 



Perspectives in Science, 6th edition, recorded 
features for radio and classroom use, with resumes, 
January 1986. 

Annual Report of the Director, Mount Wilson 
and Las Campanas Observatories, 1984-1985, 67 
pages, 19 illustrations. 

Carnegie Evening, 1986, 20 pages, 13 illustra- 
tions, May 1986. 



Administrative Documents 




Members of the Department of Plant Biology. Seated, bottom row, left to right: James 
Shinkle, Sabrina Robbins, Pamela Conley, Jeanette Brown, Grazyna Bialek-Bylka, Glenn 
Ford, Karen Hall, Frank Nicholson. Second row: Neal Woodbury, Anurag Sagar, Donald Thomas. 
Third row: David Stern, Timothy Ball, Eugenio deHostos, Brian Welsh, Peggy Lemaux. Fourth 
row: Lewis Feldman, Benjamin Horwitz, Loretta Tayabas, Winslow Briggs, Terri Lomax, Robin 
Chazdon. Fourth row: Pedro Pulido, Marta Laskowski. Fifth row: Aida Wells, Barbara Demmig. 
Top: Einar Ingebretsen. Standing, left to right: Engelbert Weis, Robert Guy, Christopher 
Field, Robert Elliot, Ulrich Kutschera, Joseph Berry, Max Seyfried, Jacob Levitt, Michael 
Dobres, Mary Smith, Ian Woodrow, William Thompson, John Watson, Lamont Anderson, Olle 
Bjorkman, Dodi Horvat, Salil Bose, David Fork, Malcolm Nobs (seated). 



Staff Lists 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY 



Research Staff 

Donald D. Brown, Director 
Douglas M. Fambrough 1 
Nina V. Fedoroff 
Joseph G. Gall 
Steven L. McKnight 
Richard E. Pagano 
Allan C. Spradling 
Samuel Ward 

Staff Associates 

Philip Beachy 2 
Sondra G. Lazarowitz 
David Schwartz 3 
Martin Snider 

Research Associates (Extramural) 

Bent Boving, Detroit, Michigan 
Igor B. Dawid, Bethesda, Maryland 
Robert L. DeHaan, Atlanta, Georgia 
Douglas M. Fambrough, Baltimore, Maryland 4 
Arthur T. Hertig, Boston, Massachusetts 
Irwin R. Konigsberg, Charlottesville, Virginia 
Kenneth J. Muller, Miami, Florida 
Ronan O'Rahilly, Davis, California 
Elizabeth M. Ramsey, Washington, D.C. 
Ronald H. Reeder, Seattle, Washington 
Gerald M. Rubin, Berkeley, California 
Yoshiaki Suzuki, Okazaki City, Japan 

Postdoctoral Fellows and Grant-Supported As- 
sociates 

Matthew Andrews, Fellow of the Damon Run- 
yon- Walter Winchell Cancer Fund 
Jo Ann Banks, Fellow of the National Institutes 

of Health (NIH) 
Karen Bennett, Fellow of the NIH 
Celeste Berg, Carnegie Corporation Fellow 5 
Lynn Cooley, Fellow of the Damon Runyon- 

Walter Winchell Cancer Fund 
Martyn Darby, Research Associate, NIH grant 
(Brown) 5 



Patrick DiMario, American Cancer Society 

Fellow 6 
Lloyd Epstein, Research Associate, NIH grant 

(Gall) 
Barbara Graves, Research Associate, NIH grant 

(McKnight) 
Mitrick Johns, Fellow of the Pioneer Hi-Bred 

International, Inc. 7 
Peter Johnson, Fellow of the Damon Runyon- 

Walter Winchell Cancer Fund 
Norman Karin, Fellow of the CIW 1 
Richard Kelley, Fellow of the NIH 
Samuel Kelly, United Agriseed Fellow 
Gene Leys, Fellow of the NIH 
Steven L'Hernault, Fellow of the NIH 
Riccardo Losa, Swiss National Science 

Foundation 6 
Patrick Mason, NATO Fellow and Foundation 

National de la Researches Sciences Fellow 8 
Terry Orr- Weaver, Fellow of the Jane Coffin 

Childs Memorial Fund 
Mark Roth, Fellow of the Jane Coffin Childs 

Memorial Fund 
Richard Sleight, Fellow of the NIH 9 
Richard Surosky, Fellow of the NIH 10 
Kunio Takeyasu, Research Associate, NIH grant 

(Fambrough) 1 
Michael Tamkun, Fellow of the Muscular Dys- 
trophy Association 1 
William Taylor, Fellow of the NIH 11 
Steven Triezenberg, Fellow of the Helen Hay 

Whitney Foundation 
Frank Tufaro, Fellow of the NIH 
Paul Uster, Fellow of the CIW 12 
Kent Vrana, Fellow of the NIH 
Alan Wolffe, Fellow of the European Molecular 

Biology Organization 
Barry Wolitzky, Fellow of the Muscular Dys- 
trophy Association 1 

Graduate Students 

Celeste Berg, Yale University 13 

Susan Bromley, Yale University 

Eric Crawford, Johns Hopkins University 



145 



146 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



Zaven Kaprielian, Johns Hopkins University 1 
Michael Koval, Johns Hopkins University 
William Landschulz, Johns Hopkins University 14 
Inara Lazdins, Johns Hopkins University 15 
Suki Parks, Johns Hopkins University 
Jennifer Schwartz, Johns Hopkins University 
Diane Shakes, Johns Hopkins University 
Barbara Sosnowski, Johns Hopkins University 
Tony Ting, Johns Hopkins University 
Rahul Warrior, Yale University 
Steve Weinheimer, University of Washington 

Supporting Staff 

Betty Addison, Laboratory Helper 
Ellen Cammon, Laboratory Helper 16 
Patricia Englar, Administrative Assistant 
James Fenwick, Laboratory Helper 
Tim Fields, Photographer 17 
Ernestine Flemmings, Laboratory Helper 
Richard Grill, Photographer 18 
Vonnie Henson, Laboratory Helper 



Wilson Hoerichs, Building Engineer 7 
Mary E. Hogan, Technician 
Eddie Jordan, Senior Technician 
Jeff Kingsbury, Technician 
Robert Kingsbury, Technician 
Joseph Levine, Technician 
Jeffrey Malter, Technician 
Ona Martin, Senior Technician 
David Meloni, Technician 16 
Ronald Millar, Building Engineer 10 
Christine Murphy, Technician 
Allison Pinder, Technician 19 
Earl Potts, Custodian 
Ophelia Rogers, Technician 18 
Susan Satchell, Business Manager 
Michael Sepanski, Technician 
Delores Somerville, Senior Technician 1 
Lori Steffy, Bookkeeper/Clerk 
Diane Thompson, Technician 
Joe Vokroy, Machinist 
Shirley Whitaker, Secretary 
Gloria Wilkes, Laboratory Helper 



2 To July 1, 1985 
2 From April 1, 1986 
3 From September 11, 1985 
4 From July 2, 1985 
5 From April 1, 1986 
6 From October 1, 1985 
7 To September 30, 1985 



8 From November 1, 1985 
9 To December 31, 1985 
10 From October 7, 1985 
n To July 30, 1985 
12 To February 28, 1986 
13 To March 31, 1986 



14 From August 15, 1985 
15 From July 2, 1985 
16 From December 16, 1985 
17 From June 5, 1986 
18 To June 30, 1986 
19 From January 3, 1986 



DEPARTMENT OF PLANT BIOLOGY 



Research Staff 

Joseph A. Berry 

Olle Bjorkman 

Winslow R. Briggs, Director 

Jeanette S. Brown 

Christopher B. Field 

David C. Fork 

C. Stacy French, Director Emeritus 

Arthur R. Grossman 

William M. Hiesey, Emeritus 

Malcolm A. Nobs, Emeritus 

William F. Thompson 1 

Research Associates 

Robin Chazdon 1 
Lon S. Kaufman 2 
Peggy G. Lemaux 

Postdoctoral Fellows 

Lamont K. Anderson, National Science Foun- 
dation Fellow 3 
Maryse A. Block 4 



Grazyna Bialek-Bylka 5 

Lise Caron 2 

Pamela B. Conley 

Michael S. Dobres 

Barbara Demmig 6 

Robert D. Guy 

Benjamin A. Horwitz 7 

Ulrich Kutschera 8 

Terri L. Lomax, National Science Foundation 
Fellow 9 

Anurag 0. Sagar 

Max Seyfried 10 

Loverine P. Taylor, National Institutes of Health 
Fellow 11 

John C. Watson 

Engelbert Weis 12 

Neal Woodbury, National Science Foundation 
Fellow 13 

Ian Woodrow, Harkness Fellow, Australian Na- 
tional University, Canberra 14 

Akihiko Yamagishi 15 

Graduate Students 

J. Timothy Ball, Stanford University 



STAFF LISTS 



147 



Tobias I. Baskin, Stanford University 
Eugenio L. deHostos, Stanford University 
Robert L. Elliott, Stanford University 
Laura S. Green, Stanford University 
Marta Laskowski, Stanford University 
Elizabeth Newell, Stanford University 
James R. Shinkle, Stanford University 2 
David B. Stern, Stanford University 9 
Lawrence D. Talbott, Stanford University 

Supporting Staff 

Michael Arbuckle, Laboratory Technician 9 
Linda Austin, Laboratory Technician 
J. Timothy Ball, Laboratory Technician 
Glenn Ford, Research Operations Manager 
Suzan M. Freas, Laboratory Manager 
Karen L. B. Hall, Laboratory Manager 



Dorothy B. Horvat, Laboratory Manager 
Einar Ingebretsen, Electrical Engineer 
Waldo Lanas, Laboratory Technician 
Frank Nicholson, Senior Technician, Facilities 

Manager 
Aviva Patel, Laboratory Technician 1 
Pedro Pulido, Technician 
Sabrina E. Robbins, Laboratory Technician 
Linda A. Roberts, Laboratory Technician 
Connie Shih, Laboratory Technician 
Mary A. Smith, Business Manager 
Loretta Tayabas, Technical Typist 
Donald Thomas, Technician/Horticulturist 
Kallidaikurichi Venkatachalam, Laboratory 

Technician 
Rudolph Warren, Technician 
Aida E. Wells, Department Secretary 
Brian M. Welsh, Mechanical Engineer 



*To June 30, 1986 
2 To September 30, 1985 
3 FromJuly 1, 1985 
4 From May 1, 1986 
5 To December 19, 1985 



6 To April 3, 1986 
7 From October 15, 1985 
8 From October 1, 1985 
9 To December 31, 1985 
10 To June 17, 1986 



u From October 1, 1985 
12 From August 26, 1985 
13 From December 16, 1985 
14 From August 16, 1985 
15 From February 1, 1986 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



Research Staff 

L. Thomas Aldrich, Emeritus 
Alan Paul Boss 
Louis Brown 
Richard W. Carlson 

W. Kent Ford, Jr. 1 

John Graham 1 - 2 

David E. James 

Alan T. Linde 

Vera C. Rubin 1 

I. Selwyn Sacks 

Francois Schweizer 1 

Steven B. Shirey 2 

Paul Silver 

Fouad Tera 

George W. Wetherill, Director 

Research Associates 

Robert Lee Edmonds 3 
Patricia M. Kenyon 4 
John Schneider 
Linda L. Stryker 5 
Nathalie Valette-Silver 6 

Senior Fellows 

Robert P. Meyer, Senior Visiting Fellow, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, Madison 7 



Gui-Zhong Qi 

Diglio A. Simoni V., Senior Visiting Fellow, 

NASA Astrophysical Observatory, Arequipa, 

Peru 8 

Postdoctoral Fellows 

Kirk Borne 9 

W. Winston Chan 10 

Robin Ciardullo 11 

Timothy J. Clarke 

J. Peter Davis 12 

Sonia Esperanca 

Deidre Hunter, Richard B. Roberts Fellow 

Julie Morris 

Michael Rich 13 

Hiroki Sato 

Students and Predoctoral Fellows 

Richard Aster, University of Wisconsin, 
Madison 14 

Ines Cifuentes, Lamont-Doherty Geological Ob- 
servatory, Columbia University 

David Dalton, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and 
State University 15 

Francis 0. Dudas, Pennsylvania State 
University 16 

Vernon Green, University of Wisconsin, 
Madison 14 



148 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



Mark Norman, Rice University 17 

Martha Savage, University of Wisconsin, 

Madison 14 
Sharon Shih, University of Wisconsin, Madison 14 
Diglio A. Simoni C, The College of Wooster 18 

Supporting Staff 

Michael Acierno, Computer Programmer 
Georg Bartels, Instrument Maker 
Gary A. Bors, Maintenance Technician 
Richard C. Carlson, Word Processor Operator 
Mary McDermott Coder, Editorial Assistant 
Dorothy B. Dillin, Librarian 
Janice Dunlap, Administrative Assistant for 
PASSCAL 19 



John A. Emler, Laboratory Technician 
Wendy Foard, Clerk-Typist 20 
Bennie Harris, Caretaker 
Gary D. Heldt, Jr. , Caretaker 19 
William E. Key, Caretaker 
Nelson McWhorter, Instrument Maker 21 
Leah Monta, Accounts Payable Clerk 
Ben K. Pandit, Electronics Specialist 
Glenn R. Poe, Electronics Research Specialist 
Akiwata Mayi Sawyer, Research Assistant 
Michael Seemann, Design Engineer— Mechan- 
ical, Shop Manager 
John F. Smith, Caretaker 19 
Terry L. Stahl, Fiscal Officer 
Mary E. White, Receptionist 22 



^olds additional appointment as Adjunct Staff Mem- 
ber, Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observato- 
ries 

2 From July 1, 1985 

3 To September 23, 1985 

4 From November 18, 1985 

5 To August 31, 1985 

6 To December 31, 1985 

7 From May 27, 1986 

8 From May 19, 1986 

9 To September 30, 1985 

10 To January 6, 1986 

n From November 12, 1985 



12 From January 6, 1986 
13 From May 12, 1986 
14 From June 15, 1986 
15 From January 6, 1986 
16 To September 10, 1985 
17 To November 15, 1985 
18 From May 15, 1986 
19 Temporary employee 
20 From December 1, 1985 
21 From September 4, 1985 
^To November 15, 1985 



GEOPHYSICAL LABORATORY 



Research Staff 

Peter M. Bell 

Francis R. Boyd, Jr. 

Felix Chayes 1 

Larry W. Finger 

Marilyn L. Fogel 

John D. Frantz 2 

P. Edgar Hare 

Robert M. Hazen 

Thomas C. Hoering 

T. Neil Irvine 

Ho-kwang Mao 

Bjorn 0. My sen 

Douglas Rumble III 3 

David Virgo 

Hatten S. Yoder, Jr., Director 4 

Distinguished Visiting Investigator 
Ikuo Kushiro 5 

Keck Earth Sciences Research Scholar 
Gregory E. Muncill 



Postdoctoral Associates 

Andrew Y. Au 6 
Anne M. Hofmeister 7 
Ji-an Xu 8 

Postdoctoral Fellows 

C. Page Chamberlain 9 
Donald B. Dingwell 10 
Andrew P. Gize 11 
Russell J. Hemley 
Andrew P. Jephcoat 12 
Robert W. Luth 9 
Thomas W. Stafford, Jr. 

Predoctoral Fellow 
L. A. Cifuentes 

Supporting Staff 

Andrew J. Antoszyk, Instrument Maker . 
Charlie A. Batten, Shop Foreman and Instru- 
ment Maker 1 



STAFF LISTS 



149 



Stephen D. Coley, Sr., Instrument Maker 
Roy R. Dingus, Instrument Maker 
Mack C. Ferguson, Jr., Custodian 13 
David J. George, Electronics Technician 
Christos Hadidiacos, Electronics Engineer 
Marjorie E. Imlay, Assistant to the Director 
Michael Jenkins, Secretary-Receptionist 
Lavonne Lela, Librarian-Stenographer 



Retired June 30, 1986 

Mel Duca Fellow, Centre National de la Recherche 

Scientifique, Nancy, from August 1, 1985 
3 Leave of absence, National Science Foundation 
4 To June 30, 1986 
5 From March 1, 1986 
6 To August 31, 1985 
7 From January 1, 1986 



Harvey J. Lutz, Clerk and Technician 
Mabel B. Mattingly, Stenographer 
Lawrence B. Patrick, Custodial Supervisor 
Dolores M. Petry, Editor and Librarian 14 
David Ratliff, Jr., Custodian and Thin-Section 

Technician 
John M. Straub, Business Manager 



8 To February 1, 1986 
9 From July 1, 1985 
10 To June 30, 1986 
u To August 31, 1985 
12 From October 1, 1985 
13 To March 14, 1986 
14 Retired August 31, 1985 



MOUNT WILSON AND LAS CAMPANAS OBSERVATORIES 



Research Staff 

Halton C. Arp 1 

Horace W. Babcock, Emeritus 

Alan Dressier 

Jerome Kristian 

S. Eric Persson 

George W. Preston, Director 2 

Allan Sandage 3 

Paul L. Schechter 

Leonard Searle 

Stephen A. Shectman 

Olin C. Wilson, Emeritus 

Adjunct Staff Members 

W. Kent Ford, Department of Terrestrial Mag- 
netism, CIW 

John Graham, Department of Terrestrial Mag- 
netism, CIW 

Vera C. Rubin, Department of Terrestrial Mag- 
netism, CIW 

Francois Schweizer, Department of Terrestrial 
Magnetism, CIW 

Las Campanas Resident Scientists 

Wojciech A. Krzeminski, Resident Scientist 
William E. Kunkel, Resident Scientist/ Admin- 
istrator 

Research Associates 

Douglas K. Duncan 4 
Ian B. Thompson 

Postdoctoral Fellows 

Jill Bechtold, Carnegie Fellow 5 
John Caldwell 6 



Belva G. Campbell 

Michael D. Gregg, Carnegie Fellow 

Wendy L. Freedman, Carnegie Fellow 

Robert I. Jedrzejewski, U.K. SERC Fellow 

Abhijit Saha, Carnegie Fellow 7 

Thomas Y. Steiman-Cameron, Carnegie Fellow 8 

Nicholas B. Suntzeff, Carnegie Las Campanas 

Observatory Fellow 9 
Rogier A. Windhorst, Carnegie Fellow 

Predoctoral Carnegie-Chile Fellow 

Fernando J. Selman, California Institute of 
Technology 

Supporting Staff, Pasadena 

John M. Adkins, Research Assistant 

Maria Anderson, Manuscript Typist and Editor 

Nicolette Breski, Purchasing Agent 

Richard T. Black, Business Manager 

John E. Boyden, Systems Programmer, Solar 

Physics 10 
David M. Carr, Electronics Technician 11 
Ken D. Clardy, Data Systems Manager 
Maynard K. Clark, Electronics Engineer, Solar 

Physics 9 
Harvey W. Crist, Machinist 
Carroll L. Friswold, Head, Design Group 
Joan Gantz, Librarian 

Robert D. Georgen, Foreman, Machine Shop 
Pamela I. Gilman, Research Assistant, Solar 

Physics 12 
Rhea M. Goodwin, Assistant to the Director 
John A. Jacobs, Electronics Technician (part- 
time) 13 
Basil N. Katem, Senior Research Assistant 
Stephen L. Knapp, Electronics Engineer 
Stephen P. Padilla, Research Assistant, Solar 



150 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



Physics 12 

Frank Perez, Technical Assistant to the Direc- 
tor 

Christopher M. Price, Electronics Engineer 

William D. Quails, Driver 13 

Delores B. Sahlin, Receptionist 

Edward H. Snoddy, Designer 

Jeannie M. Todd, Bookkeeper 

Estuardo Vasquez, Machinist 

Steven Wilson, Carpenter 

Laura A. Woodard, Research Assistant/Ob- 
server 

Supporting Staff, Mount Wilson 

Judy L. Carr, Stewardess (part-time) 15 
James Frazer, Night Assistant/Observer 
Ricardo de Leon, Steward 16 
Jean Mueller, Night Assistant/Observer 17 
Anthony Misch, Observatory Technician 18 
Donald R. Poppe, Night Assistant/Observer 8 
Eric Rawe, Observatory Technician 8 
Larry Webster, Resident Solar Observer 19 

Supporting Staff, Las Campanas 

Alain Aubry T., Electronics Technician 20 

Hector Balbontin I., Chef 

Danilo Bassi A. , Electronics Technician 21 

Angel Cortes L., Accountant 

Oscar Duhalde C, Night Assistant 

Angel Guerra F., Night Assistant 

Leonel Lillo A. , Carpenter 

Mario Mondaca 0., Guard (part-time) 

Herman Olivares G., Warehouse Attendant 

Ljubomir Papic, Mountain Superintendent 

Alfredo Paredes Z., Equipment Operator 



Fernando Peralta B., Night Assistant 

Leonardo Peralta B., Driver and Purchaser 

Victorino Riquelme, P., Janitor 

Honorio Rojas P., Pump Operator 

Pedro Rojas T. , Mason 

William Robinson W., Electronics Technician 22 

Luis Solis P., Electronics Technician 

Mario Taquias L., Plumber 

Gabriel Tolmo v. , El Pino Guard 

Jorge Tolmo V., El Pino Guard 

Mauricio Villalobos H., Chef 

Patricia Villar B., Administrative Assistant 

Victor Valenzuela L., Mechanic 8 



^eave of absence to June 30, 1986; retired June 30, 

1986 
2 Director to June 30, 1986 
3 Leave of absence from October 1, 1985 
4 To January 31, 1986 
5 From December 16, 1985 
6 From August 1, 1985 
7 From October 1, 1985 
8 To August 31, 1985 
9 To December 31, 1985 
10 To September 30, 1985 
n FromJuly31, 1985 
12 To October 31, 1985 
13 From February 21, 1986 
"Retired June 30, 1986 
15 To July 20, 1985 
16 To September 1, 1985 
17 To July 1, 1985 
18 To June 4, 1986 
19 To June 30, 1986 
20 From February 1, 1986 
21 To January 1, 1986 
22 To August 15, 1985 



OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION 



Lloyd H. Allen, Custodian 

Cynthia T. Blagmon, Receptionist and Clerk 1 

Ray Bowers, Editor, Publications Officer 

Don A. Brooks, Custodian 

Cady Canapp, Administrator for Personnel and 
Employee Benefits 

Carolyn J. Davis, Secretary 

Barbara F. Deal, Administrative Assistant 

James D. Ebert, President 

Jacqueline Green, Secretary to the President 

Joseph M. S. Haraburda, Accounting Manager 

Susan E. Henderson, Systems Accountant 2 

Jill Humphreys, Receptionist and Clerk 3 

Antoinette M. Jackson, Facilities and Support 
Services Manager 

Sherman L. E. Johnson, Payroll Supervisor 

John C. Lawrence, Controller 

Margaret L. Loflin, Assistant to the Vice Pres- 
ident 



Margaret L. A. Mac Vicar, Vice President 
Susan A. Maslousky, Accountant 4 
John B. Osolnick, Systems Accountant 
Patricia Parratt, Associate Editor 
Arnold J. Pry or, Equal Opportunity Officer 
Richard B. Sell, Accountant 
Greg Silsbee, Grants and Contracts Adminis- 
trator 
Susan Y. Vasquez, Assistant to the President 
Si-ming Wang, Student Assistant from People's 
Republic of China 5 



^rom June 16, 1986 
2 To July 10, 1985 
3 To March 26, 1986 
4 From October 17, 1985 
5 From June 13, 1986 



STAFF LISTS 



151 



APPOINTMENTS IN SPECIAL SUBJECT AREAS 

Roy J. Britten, Staff Member of the Institution 1 Barbara McClintock, Distinguished Service 

Member of the Institution 2 



distinguished Carnegie Senior Research Associate, 
Developmental Biology Research Group, California 
Institute of Technology 

2 Cold Spring Harbor, New York 



Visiting Investigators 



DEPARTMENT OF PLANT BIOLOGY 



Salil Bose, University of Madurai, India 
Lewis J. Feldman, University of California, 

Berkeley 
Marilyn Fogel, Geophysical Laboratory, CIW 
Jacob Levitt, Senior Fellow, University of Min- 
nesota 



Siegrid Schoch, Senior Fellow, University of 

Munich, West Germany 
Arindam Sen, Roswell Park Memorial Institute, 

Buffalo, New York 
Bruce B. Stowe, Yale University 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



Barbara Barreiro, Dartmouth College 

Kenneth D. Collerson, University of Regina, 
Canada 

Wang Enfu, State Seismological Bureau, Beij- 
ing, People's Republic of China 

Jiang Guang, State Seismological Bureau, Beij- 
ing, People's Republic of China 

William K. Hart, Miami University 

Liu Lanbo, State Seismological Bureau, Beijing, 
People's Republic of China 

Jacek Leliwa-Kopystynski, Polish Academy of 
Science, Warsaw 

Stanley A. Mertzman, Franklin and Marshall 



College 

Tsutomu Murase, Institute of Vocational Train- 
ing, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan 

Leandro Rodriguez, Instituto Geofi'sico del Peru, 
Lima 

J. Arthur Snoke, Virginia Polytechnic Institute 
and State University 

Ole Stecher, University of Aarhus, Denmark 

Glen R. Stewart, University of Virginia 

Raymond Willemann, Los Alamos National 
Laboratory 

Allan H. Wilson, University of Natal, South Af- 
rica 



GEOPHYSICAL LABORATORY 



B. K. Agarwala, University of Delhi, India 
Denesh Agrawal, Pennsylvania State Univer- 
sity 
Jagan Akella, Lawrence Livermore Laborato- 
ries 
Mary Jo Baedecker, U. S. Geological Survey 
Mark Barton, University of California, Los An- 
geles 



Lukas Baumgartner, University of Basel 
Franchise Behar, Institut Frangais du Petrole, 

Rueil Malmaison, France 
James Bischoff, U. S. Geological Survey 
Nabil Z. Boctor, Purdue University 
Luis A. Cifuentes, University of Delaware 
Lloyd Currie, National Bureau of Standards 
Howard W. Day, University of California, Davis 



152 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



Melville P. Dickenson, Virginia Polytechnic In- 
stitute and State University 
James W. Downs, Ohio State University 
A. A. Finnerty, University of California, Davis 
Fred Gallaraga, University of Maryland 
Wen-yang Guo, Jilin University, People's Re- 
public of China 
Dong-ming Jing, Jilin University, People's Re- 
public of China 
Douglas Keith, Dartmouth College 
Ronald W. L. Kimber, CSIRO, Adelaide, Aus- 
tralia 
Julie Kokis, George Washington University 
Rama Kotra, U. S. Geological Survey 
Vince La Piana, Yale University 
Barbara Levinson, University of Maryland 
Rong-hua Li, Jilin University, People's Repub- 
lic of China 
Heinz A. Lowenstam, California Institute of 

Technology 
Ian D. MacGregor, National Science Foundation 
Catherine McCammon, University of British 

Columbia 
Hugh McKinstry, Pennsylvania State Univer- 
sity 



Tsutomu Murase, Institute of Vocational Train- 
ing, Japan 
V. S. Nanda, University of Delhi, India 
Vivek Navale, University of Maryland 
Yuen-jei Pong, Jilin University, People's Re- 
public of China 
Hiroki Sato, University of Hawaii 
Martha W. Schaefer, Naval Research Labora- 
tory 
Zachary Sharp, University of Michigan 
Martin R. Sharpe, University of Pretoria, South 

Africa 
E. Kent Sprague, University of Georgia 
Linda Stathoplos, University of Rhode Island 
Au-chin Tang, Jilin University, People's Re- 
public of China 
Louis Walter, Goddard Space Flight Center, 

NASA 
Huei-yang Wang, Jilin University, People's Re- 
public of China 
Terry Wu, University of Maryland 
Jianguo Xu, Institute of Geochemistry, Acade- 
mia Sinica, People's Republic of China 



MOUNT WILSON AND LAS CAMP ANAS OBSERVATORIES 



Thomas Albert,* University of Basel 
Martin Aparicio, University of Andalucia 
Dana Backman, University of Arizona 
Luis H. Barrera, Catholic University of Chile 
Bruno A. Binggeli, University of Basel 
David A. Bohlender,* University of Western 

Ontario 
Luzius Cameron,* University of Basel 
Daniel Cerrito,* University of Basel 
Marc Davis, University of California, Berkeley 
Alexei Filippenko, University of California, 

Berkeley 
Alfred Gautschy,* University of Basel 
Gerard Gilmore, University of Cambridge 
Perry Hacking,* Jet Propulsion Laboratory and 

Cornell University 
Eduardo Hardy, Laval University 
Hugh Harris, U. S. Naval Observatory 
Robert Hill,* University of Western Ontario 
Deidre Hunter, Department of Terrestrial Mag- 
netism, CIW 
John Hutchings, Dominion Astrophysical Ob- 
servatory 
Renee Kraan-Korteweg, University of Basel 
John D. Landstreet, University of Western On- 
tario 
Bruno Leibundgut,* University of Basel 
Douglas McElroy, Space Telescope Science In- 
stitute 
Jose Maza, University of Chile 
Guido Munch, Max-Planck-Institut fur Astron- 
omie, Heidelburg, and Jet Propulsion Labo- 



ratory 
Mario Pedreros, University of Chile 
Hernan Quintana, Catholic University of Chile 
Anja Schroeder,* University of Basel 
R. Singer,* University of Basel 
Bradford A. Smith, University of Arizona 
A. Spaenhauer,* University of Basel 
Gustav A. Tammann, University of Basel 
Santiago Tapia, University of Arizona 
Richard J. Terrile, Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
Nikolaus Vogt, Catholic University of Chile 
Robert West, Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
George Wetherill, Department of Terrestrial 

Magnetism, CIW 
Rosemary Wyse, University of California, 

Berkeley 

California Institute of Technology Observers 

Timothy Beers 
Gregory Bothun 
Judith Cohen 
Christopher Impey 
Barry Madore 
Jeremy Mould 
James Nemec 
R. Michael Rich* 
Wallace L. W. Sargent 
Fernando J. Selman* 
Charles Steidel* 
John Trauger 



*Graduate student 



Report of the Executive 
Committee 

To the Trustees of the Carnegie Institution of Washington 

In accordance with the provisions of the By-Laws, the Executive Com- 
mittee submits this report to the Annual Meeting of the Board of Trustees. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1986, the Executive Committee held 
five meetings. Accounts of these meetings have been or will be mailed to each 
Trustee. 

A full statement of the finances and work of the Institution for the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1985, appears in the Institution's Year Book 8Jf, a copy 
of which has been sent to each Trustee. An estimate of the Institution's 
expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1987, appears in the budget 
recommended by the Committee for approval by the Board of Trustees. 

The terms of the following members of the Board expire on May 9, 1986: 

Philip H. Abelson John D. Macomber 

Robert G. Goelet Charles H. Townes 

Caryl P. Haskins Sidney J. Weinberg, Jr. 
George F. Jewett, Jr. 

In addition, the terms of all Committee Chairmen and the following mem- 
bers of Committees expire on May 9, 1986: 

Executive Committee Finance Committee 

William C. Greenough William C. Greenough 

Caryl P. Haskins Sidney J. Weinberg, Jr. 

Charles H. Townes ^ , D n. n -.. 

Employee Benefits Committee 

Nominating Committee p, .,. „ ., , 

Antonia Ax:son Johnson William T. Coleman, Jr. 

Charles H. Townes 



Robert C. Seamans, Jr., Chairman 
May 9, 1986 



153 



Abstract of Minutes 

of the Eighty-Ninth Meeting of the Board of Trustees 

The annual meeting of the Board of Trustees was held in the Board Room 
of the Administration Building on Friday, May 9, 1986. The meeting was 
called to order by the Chairman, William R. Hewlett. 

The following Trustees were present: Philip H. Abelson, Lewis M. Bran- 
scomb, William T. Coleman, Jr., Edward E. David, Jr., John Diebold, Gerald 
M. Edelman, Sandra M. Faber, Robert G. Goelet, William T. Golden, William 
C. Greenough, Caryl P. Haskins, Richard E. Heckert, William R. Hewlett, 
George F. Jewett, Jr., Antonia Ax:son Johnson, William F. Kieschnick, Ger- 
ald D. Laubach, John D. Macomber, Robert M. Pennoyer, Richard S. Perkins, 
Robert C. Seamans, Jr., Charles H. Townes, Sidney J. Weinberg, Jr., and 
Gunnar Wessman. Also present were William McChesney Martin, Jr. and 
Garrison Norton, Trustees Emeriti, James D. Ebert, President, Margaret 
L. A. MacVicar, Vice President, John C. Lawrence, Controller, Susan Y. 
Vasquez, Assistant Secretary, and Marshall Hornblower, Counsel. 

The minutes of the Eighty-Eighth Meeting were approved. 

The reports of the Executive Committee, the Finance Committee, the 
Employee Benefits Committee, and the Auditing Committee were accepted. 
On the recommendation of the latter, it was resolved that Price Waterhouse 
& Co. be appointed as public accountants for the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1986. 

Section 5.8 of the By-Laws was amended. The amended language is given 
in the By-Laws printed on pages 179-184 of this Year Book. 

On the recommendation of the Nominating Committee, Thomas N. Urban 
was elected a member of the Board of Trustees, and the following were 
reelected for terms ending in 1989: Philip H. Abelson, Robert G. Goelet, 
Caryl P. Haskins, George F. Jewett, Jr., John D. Macomber, Charles H. 
Townes, and Sidney J. Weinberg, Jr. 

Richard E. Heckert was elected Chairman of the Board for a term ending 
in 1989 and Robert C. Seamans, Jr., was elected Vice Chairman of the Board 
for a term ending in 1988. 

The following were elected for one-year terms: Robert C. Seamans, Jr., as 
Chairman of the Executive Committee; Sidney J. Weinberg, Jr., as Chairman 
of the Finance Committee; Robert M. Pennoyer, as Chairman of the Auditing 
Committee; William T. Golden, as Chairman of the Nominating Committee; 
and William T. Coleman, Jr., as Chairman of the Employee Benefits Com- 
mittee. 

Vacancies in the Standing Committees, with terms ending in 1989, were 
filled as follows: William C. Greenough, Caryl P. Haskins, George F. Jewett, 
Jr. , and Gerald D. Laubach were elected members of the Executive Com- 
mittee; Sidney J. Weinberg, Jr., and William C. Greenough were elected 
members of the Finance Committee; William F. Kieschnick was elected a 
member of the Nominating Committee; and William T. Coleman, Jr. was 



155 



156 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

elected a member of the Employee Benefits Committee. In addition, William 
R. Hewlett was elected a member of the Executive Committee for the unex- 
pired term ending in 1987. 

Dr. Seamans reported further to the Board on the deliberations of the 
Executive Committee at its meeting on May 8, 1986, regarding a site for the 
co-location of the Geophysical Laboratory and Department of Terrestrial Mag- 
netism and adoption of the following resolution: 

Resolved, That, because the highest priority of the Institution in the earth and 
related astronomical sciences is to realize the opportunities for unique scientific 
collaborations and bold, new lines of scientific inquiry inherent in the intellectual 
collaboration of the Geophysical Laboratory and the Department of Terrestrial Mag- 
netism, the Executive Committee 

1. Authorizes the President to commission the development of an architectural sche- 
matic plan for new construction and renovation of existing structures on the Broad 
Branch Road site in Washington, D. C, appropriate to co-location of the Geo- 
physical Laboratory and the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, 

2. Requests the President, with the close cooperation of the Directors of the Geo- 
physical Laboratory and the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, to work closely 
with the architect in the development of the schematic plan and analysis of its 
budget implications, for review by the Trustees in Spring of 1987, and 

3. Requests the President, with the close cooperation of the Directors of the Geo- 
physical Laboratory and the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, to devise a 
plan and timetable for the intellectual collaboration of the two departments, and, 
with these two Directors, together with the Director of Mount Wilson and Las 
Campanas Observatories, to address the question whether the Institution should 
continue to maintain two separate groups of astronomers, currently in Pasadena 
and Washington, D. C, and 

4. Declines the gracious and generous invitation of The Johns Hopkins University 
to relocate the Geophysical Laboratory and the Department of Terrestrial Mag- 
netism to a common site on the University's Home wood campus. 

The annual report of the President was accepted. 

To provide for the operation of the Institution for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1987, and upon recommendation of the Executive Committee, the 
sum of $17,625,000 was appropriated. 



Financial Statements 

for the year ended June 30, 1986 



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158 



Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Financial Statements 



Contributions, Gifts, and Grants 
for the Year Ended June 30, 1986 



Joseph F. Albright 

Joan M. Anderson 

American Cancer Society 

BARD (U. S.-Israel Agriculture Foundation) 

Liselotte Beach 

Giuseppe Bertani 

Montgomery S. and Joanne Bradley 

The Bristol-Myers Fund, Inc. 

Donald D. Brown 

Donald M. Burt 

California Institute of Technology 

Carnegie Corporation of New York 

James F. Case 

Ernst W. Caspari 

Celanese Corporation 

Britton Chance 

People's Republic of China 

The Jane Coffin Childs Memorial Foundation 

John R. Coleman 

Columbia University 

Commonwealth Fund 

Hayden G. Coon 

Jean Cockrell Cowie 

Sandy and George Dalsheimer 

H. Clark Dalton 

Robert L. DeHaan 

Louis E. DeLanney 

John Diebold 

E. I. du Pont de Nemours 

James and Alma Ebert 

W. Gary Ernst 

Exxon Education Foundation 

Dorothy Ruth Fischer 

George W. Fisher 

Michael Fleischer 

Scott Forbush Estate 

Sibyl & William T. Golden Foundation 

Crawford and Margaretta Greenewalt 

William C. Greenough 

Leo J. Haber 

William G. Hagar, III 

Richard Hallberg 

Pembroke J. Hart 

Caryl P. and Edna Haskins 

Robert J. Hay 

Ulrich Heber 

Richard E. Heckert 

Mary G. Hedger 

H. Lawrence Heifer 

Edward P. Henderson 

Mark D. Henderson 

Alfred D. Hershey 

William R. Hewlett 



William M. Hiesey 

Alexander Hollaender 

Satoshi Hoshina 

Robert F. Howard 

International Business Machines Corp. 

F. Earl Ingerson 

The J. I. Foundation, Inc. 

George F. Jewett, Jr. 1965 Trust 

The Johns Hopkins University 

Paul A. Johnson 

W. M. Keck Foundation 

Elizabeth Ramsey, M.D., and Hans A. Klagsbrunn 

Ursula and Irwin Konigsberg 

David C. Koo 

Robert W. Krauss 

Faith W. and Arthur La Velle 

Archibald H. Lawrence 

Harold H. Lee 

Ta-Yan Leong 

Edna G. Lichtenstein 

Melvyn Lieberman 

Life Sciences Research Foundation 

Eckhard Loos 

Leukemia Society of America 

John D. & Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation 

John D. and Caroline Macomber 

Sheila McCormick 

Chester B. Martin, Jr. 

The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation 

Gunter H. Moh 

Ambrose Monell Foundation 

Monsanto Company 

Muscular Dystrophy Association 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration 

National Geographic Society 

National Science Foundation 

Office of Naval Research 

Malcolm A. Nobs 

Yasumi Ohshima 

Tokindo Okada 

Eijiro Ozawa 

Richard S. Perkins 

Pfizer Inc. 

Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. 

Alexander Pogo 

Public Health Service 

P. R. Ranganayaki 

Peter H. and Tamra E. Raven 

Minocher Reporter 

Curt P. Richter 

Carl R. Robbins 

Glenn C. Rosenquist 

(continued) 



159 



Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Financial Statements 



Contributions, Gifts, and Grants 
for the Year Ended June 30, 1986 (continued) 



Dorothea Rudnick 

Damon Runyon-Walter Winchell Cancer Fund 

Paul A. and Margaret H. Scherer 

Maarten Schmidt 

Robert C. Seamans, Jr. 

Arindam Sen 

Shell Companies Foundation, Inc. 

Edwin M. Shook 

Alfred P. Sloan Foundation 

A. Ledyard Smith 

Harold Speert 

Ikuo Takeuchi 

The Teagle Foundation, Inc. 

George R. Tilton 

Charles H. Townes 

United Agriseeds 



U. S. Agency for International Development 

U. S. Department of Agriculture 

U. S. Department of the Interior 

University of California 

University of Delaware 

Albrecht Unsold 

William B. Upholt 

Ken-ichi Wakamatsu 

Sidney J. Weinberg, Jr. Foundation 

James A. Weinman 

Weizmann Institute 

Wenner-Gren Foundation 

Helen Hay Whitney Foundation 

Frederick T. Wolf 

Violet K. Young 



160 



1801 K Street, N.W. Telephone 202 296 0800 

Washington, DC 20006 



Price Ihiterhouse f^ 



August 29, 1986 



To the Auditing Committee of the 
Carnegie Institution of Washington 

In our opinion, the accompanying statements of assets, 
liabilities, and fund balances and the related statements of 
income, expenses, and changes in fund balances present 
fairly the financial position of the Carnegie Institution of 
Washington at June 30, 1986 and 1985, and the results of its 
operations and the changes in its fund balances for the 
years then ended, in conformity with generally accepted 
accounting principles applied on a consistent basis after 
restatement for the change, with which we concur, in the 
method of accounting for investments as described in Note 2 
to the financial statements. Our examinations of these 
statements were made in accordance with generally accepted 
auditing standards and accordingly included such cests of 
the accounting records and such other auditing procedures as 
we considered necessary in the circumstances. 

Our examinations were made for the purpose of forming an 
opinion on the basic financial statements taken as a whole. 
The supporting schedules 1 through 5 are presented for 
purposes of additional analysis and are not a required part 
of the basic financial statements. Such information has 
been subjected to the auditing procedures applied in the 
examination of the basic financial statements and, in our 
opinion, is fairly stated in all material respects in 
relation to the basic financial statements taken as a whole. 



f/ /Uti (jjA&Jt*^*- 



161 



Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Financial Statements 



Statements of Assets, Liabilities, and Fund Balances 
June 30, 1986 and 1985 



Assets 



1986 



1985t 



Cash and cash equivalents $ 598,514 

Advances 26,821 

Grants receivable 213,077 

Accrued interest and dividends 1,374,254 

Due from brokers 262,534 

2,475,200 

Investments* (market) 

Fixed income — short term 8,572,000 

Fixed income — bonds 34,211,528 

Fixed income — mortgages 29,842,106 

Corporate stocks 129,712,137 

Other 644,540 

202,982,311 

Plant 

Land 1,019,524 

Buildings 4,449,805 

Equipment 10,224,309 

15,693,638 

Total assets $221,151,149 

Liabilities and Fund Balances 

Liabilities 

Accounts payable and accrued expenses 1,177,247 

Deferred grant income 2,653,320 

Total liabilities 3,830,567 

Fund balances 217,320,582 

Contingencies (see Note 6) 

Total liabilities and fund balances $221,151,149 

* Approximate cost on June 30, 1986: $160,152,977; June 30, 1985: $135,676,368. 
t Restated for comparative purposes (see Note 2). 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these statements. 



$ 3,975,889 

76,668 

393,639 

971,643 

649,040 

6,066,879 



2,764,000 

27,968,788 

24,161,102 

97,767,778 

548,559 

153,210,227 



1,019,524 

4,369,812 

10,218,544 

15,607,880 

$174,884,986 



1,204,541 
2,411,213 

3,615,754 



171,269,232 



$174,884,986 



162 



Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Financial Statements 



Statements of Revenues, Expenses, and Changes in Fund Balances 
for the Years Ended June 30, 1986 and 1985 

Year Ended June 30 



Revenues 

Investment income 

Grants 

Federal 

Private 

Other revenues 

Total revenues 

Expenses 

Personnel and related 

Equipment ; 

General 

Total expenses 

Excess of revenues over expenses before capital changes . 

Capital changes 

Realized net gain on investments 

Unrealized gain on investments 

Gifts — Endowment and Special Funds 

Land, buildings, and equipment capitalized 

Sale of property 

Total capital changes 

Excess of revenues and capital changes over expenses 
Fund balances, beginning of year 

Fund balances, end of year 

* Restated for comparative purposes (see Note 2). 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these statements. 



1986 


1985* 


$ 10,165,667 


$ 11,196,173 


3,748,432 

1,847,049 

317,496 


4,156,462 

1,042,142 

162,933 


16,078,644 


16,557,710 


9,180,632 
1,598,870 
5,291,078 


9,296,744 
1,880,666 
4,825,015 


16,070,580 


16,002,425 


8,064 


555,285 


20,435,855 

25,295,476 

226,197 

85,758 


8,066,121 

18,076,135 

1,113,859 

316,793 

426,013 


46,043,286 


27,998,921 


46,051,350 


28,554,206 


171,269,232 


142,715,026 


$217,320,582 


$171,269,232 



163 



Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Financial Statements 



Notes to the Financial Statements 
June 30, 1986 

Note 1 . Significant Accounting Policies 

The financial statements of the Institution are prepared on the accrual basis of accounting. 

The Institution capitalizes expenditures for land, buildings, telescopes and other significant 
equipment, and construction projects in progress. Expenditures for other equipment are 
charged to current operations as incurred, and the cost of such other equipment is not capitalized. 
The Institution follows the policy of not depreciating its buildings and telescopes. 

Note 2. Change in Method of Accounting for Investments 

To allow for a better measurement of the value of its invested assets, the Institution changed 
its accounting policy relating to the valuation of investments in 1986. In prior years, investments 
were carried at the lower of cost or market. Under the new policy, which was applied retroac- 
tively, investments are carried at market, and increases or decreases in market value are 
recognized in the period in which they occur. There was no effect on the June 30, 1984 fund 
balances as previously reported, because the cost was written down to market value on that 
date. However, this change did increase unrealized gains on investments by $17,533,859 in 
1985, and increased the June 30, 1985 fund balances by $17,533,859. Concurrent with this 
change, the Institution changed its method of determining gains and losses on the disposition 
of investments from the first-in, first-out method to the average cost method. This change had 
no material impact on the amount reported as realized net gain on investments. 

A detailed listing of all securities held by the Institution as of June 30, 1986 has been included 
as Schedule 5 of this report. 

Note 3. Employee Benefit Plans 

The Institution has a noncontributory, money-purchase retirement plan, in which all United 
States personnel are eligible to participate. Voluntary contributions may also be made by 
employees. Actuarially determined contributions are funded currently by the Institution, and 
there are no unfunded past service costs. The total contributions made by the Institution were 
$778,743 in 1986 and $833,113 in 1985. Benefits under the plan upon retirement depend upon 
the investment performance of the Institution's Retirement Trust. After one year's participa- 
tion, an individual's benefits are fully vested. 

The Institution provides health insurance for retired employees. Most of the Institution's 
United States employees may become eligible for those benefits at retirement. The cost of 
retiree health insurance benefits is recognized as an expense as costs are incurred. For 1986 
and 1985 those costs were $197,222 and $198,942, respectively. 

Note If. Restricted Grants 

Restricted Grants are funds received from foundations, individuals, and federal agencies in 
support of scientific research and educational programs. The Institution follows the policy of 
reporting revenues only to the extent that reimbursable expenditures are incurred. The Re- 
stricted Grants Statement (Schedule 3) shows all current grants. 

Note 5. Income Taxes 

The Institution is exempt from federal income tax under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal 
Revenue Code. Accordingly, no provision for income taxes is reflected in the accompanying 
financial statements. The Institution is also an educational institution within the meaning of 
Section 170(b)(l)(A)(ii) of the Code. The Internal Revenue Service has classified the Institution 
as other than a private foundation, as defined in Section 509(a) of the Code. 

Note 6. Contingencies 

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1986, a suit was filed against the Institution alleging 
improper disposal of controlled hazardous substances removed from the Institution's Depart- 
ment of Embryology. The plaintiff seeks to obtain $23,000,000 compensatory damages and 
$23,000,000 punitive damages from the Institution. The Institution is vigorously defending 
itself against the charges brought in the suit. In the opinion of the Institution's management, 
the ultimate resolution of this matter will have no material effect on the financial position of 
the Institution. 



164 



Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Financial Statements 



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Financial Statements 



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166 



Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Financial Statements 



Schedule 3 



Restricted Grants 
for the Year Ended June 30, 1986 



Federal Grants 

BARD (U.S.-Israel Agriculture Fund) 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration . 

National Science Foundation 

Office of Naval Research 

Public Health Service 

U.S. Agency for International Development . . . 

U.S. Department of Agriculture 

U.S. Department of the Interior 

Other 

Total federal grants 

Private Grants 

American Cancer Society 

California Institute of Technology 

University of California 

Carnegie Corporation of New York 

People's Republic of China 

The Jane Coffin Childs Memorial Fund for Medical 

Research 

Columbia University 

The Commonwealth Fund 

The Charles A. Dana Foundation, Inc 

University of Delaware 

Exxon Education Foundation 

William R. Hewlett Lead Trust 

Pioneer Hi-Bred International 

Johns Hopkins University 

W. M. Keck Foundation 

Klingenstein Fund 

Leukemia Society of America 

Life Sciences Research Foundation 

John D. & Catherine T. Mac Arthur Foundation . 

The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation 

Ambrose Monell Foundation 

Monsanto Company 

Muscular Dystrophy Association 

National Geographic Society 

Richard B. T. Roberts 

Vera C. Rubin 

Damon Runyon-Walter Winchell Cancer Fund 

Shell Development Company 

Alfred P. Sloan Foundation 

The Teagle Foundation, Inc 

United Agriseeds 

Weizmann Institute 

Wenner-Gren Foundation 

Helen Hay Whitney Foundation 

Total private grants 

Total restricted grants 

Less cash not yet received from grants 

Deferred income 



Balance 


New 




Balance 


Julv 1.1985 


Grants 


Expenses 


June 30. 1986 


$ 7,111 


$ 


$ 6,982 


$ 129 


207,226 


219,403 


265,183 


161,446 


1,185,676 


995,709 


1,237,827 


943,558 


47,695 




47,695 




912,381 


1,948,742 


1,836,961 


1,024,162 


88,225 




62,672 


25,553 


20,351 


182,000 


80,635 


121,716 


31,740 


199,455 


203,395 


27,800 


4,640 


27,087 


7,082 


24,645 



3,589,335 



$2,411,213 



2,505,045 3,572,396 3,748,432 



3,495,503 1,970,830 1,847,049 



6,000,548 $5,543,226 $5,595,481 



2,329,009 



662,783 


16,000 


85,024 


593,759 


13,424 


35,000 


22,987 


25,437 




32,278 


32,278 


. . . 


250,000 




125,000 


125,000 


186,233 




171,193 


15,040 


28,847 


39,000 


36,014 


31,833 




10,000 


10,000 






2,500 


1,522 


978 




5,000 


5,000 


. . . 




14,844 


. . . 


14,844 




100,000 




100,000 


1,248,665 


997,425 


828,367 


1,417,723 


19,501 




9,682 


9,819 


12,295 


61,295 


37,065 


36,525 


198,811 




58,148 


140,663 




5,000 


5,000 






76,140 




76,140 




89,867 


8,534 


81,333 




15,000 


15,000 




694,289 


250,000 


167,978 


776,311 




50,000 




50,000 


21,136 


. . . 


15,543 


5,593 


8,500 


(9,000) 


(500) 




7,755 


. . . 


7,755 




1,306 


. . . 


. . . 


1,306 


3,347 






3,347 


63,480 


20,500 


57,819 


26,161 




78,570 


39,929 


38,641 


20,457 




7,767 


12,690 


10,000 


30,000 


30,250 


9,750 


1,917 


30,000 


30,000 


1,917 


. . . 


21,411 


17,754 


3,657 


5,364 




4,847 


517 


37,393 




17,093 


20,300 



3,619,284 
5,948,293 



3.294.973 



$2,653,320 



The accompanying notes are an integral part of these schedules. 



167 



Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Financial Statements 



Schedule of Expenses 
for the Years Ended June 30, 1986 and 1985 

1986 



Schedule 4 



1985 



Salaries, fringe benefits, and payroll taxes 

Salaries 

Fringe benefits and payroll taxes . . 

Total 

Fellowship grants 



Awards, grants, and honoraria 



Equipment 

Educational and research 

Administrative and operating . . 

Library 

Buildings (improvement) 

Telescopes (improvement) .... 

Total 

General expenses 
Educational and research supplies 

Building maintenance 

Investment services 

Administrative 

Travel 

Retiree and special employee benefits 

General insurance 

Publications 

Professional and consulting fees 

Commissary 

Shop 

Real estate and other taxes .... 
Rent 

Total 

Indirect costs 

Total expenses .... 



The accompanying notes are an integral part of these schedules. 



Endowment 


Restricted 


Total 


Total 


and Special 


Grants 


Expenses 


Expenses 


$ 5,139,558 


$1,301,663 


$ 6,441,221 


$ 6,498,846 


1,319,630 


353,267 


1,672,897 


1,764,141 


6,459,188 


1,654,930 


8,114,118 


8,262,987 


546,212 


483,604 


1,029,816 


989,052 


23,093 


13,605 


36,698 


44,705 


216,880 


999,933 


1,216,813 


1,274,421 


159,644 


14,440 


174,084 


130,137 


122,215 


. . . 


122,215 


109,712 


2,826 


77,167 


79,993 


359,671 


5,765 




5,765 
1,598,870 


6,725 


507,330 


1,091,540 


1,880,666 


664,428 


1,009,109 


1,673,537 


1,641,307 


830,679 


29,512 


860,191 


878,859 


690,005 


. . . 


690,005 


389,097 


685,448 


38,852 


724,300 


658,521 


309,736 


219,136 


528,872 


494,485 


211,123 




211,123 


202,132 


164,614 




164,614 


56,762 


127,610 


35,643 


163,253 


156,122 


111,832 


7,681 


119,513 


209,728 


35,293 


. . . 


35,293 


49,954 


34,136 


. . . 


34,136 


37,086 


65,409 




65,409 


29,751 


5,832 


15,000 


20,832 


21,211 


3,936,145 


1,354,933 


5,291,078 


4,825,015 


(996,869) 


996,869 
$5,595,481 






$10,475,099 


$16,070,580 


$16,002,425 



168 



Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Financial Statements 



Schedule of Investments 
June 30, 1986 

Description Par/Shares 

Fixed income — short term 

General Motors Acceptance Corp. , 

Master Note 3,474,000 

Merck & Co. Inc., Master Note 2,438,000 

Mobil Oil P & E, Master Note 2,660,000 

Total fixed income — short term 

Fixed income — bonds 

Chrysler Corp. Bonds, 13%, 1997 875,000 

Chrysler Financial Corp., Note, 12.75%, 1994 ... 450,000 

DMK Bundes Republic, 7.25%, 1995 600,000 

DMK Bundes Republic, 7.625%, 1995 400,000 

DMK Bundes Republic, 7.5%, 1995 550,000 

Equitable Life Leasing Corp., Note, 11.85%, 1988 . . . 13,609 
Ford Motor Credit Co. , Med Term Note, 

8.125%, 1991 1,800,000 

Household Finance Corp., Sr. Note 12.25%, 2004 . 200,000 
International Bank Reconstruction & Development, 

10%, 2001 340,000 

Occidental Petroleum Corp., Note, 9.64%, 1992 . . 1,200,000 

Phillips Petroleum Co., SR Notes, 8.625%, 1995 . . 450,000 

Student Loan Marketing Assn., 13.5%, 1991 .... 1,065,000 

Sweden Kingdom Bonds, 10.25%, 2015 350,000 

British Columbia Hydro & Power, Canadian Bonds, 

15%, 2011 350,000 

Government of Canada, Ser H48, Canadian Bonds, 

11.75%, 1995 1,500,000 

Government of Canada, Ser J95, Canadian Bonds, 

11.75%, 1992 360,000 

Government of Canada, SerH67, Canadian Bonds, 

10.75%, 1995 240,000 

United States Treasury Notes, 13.75%, 1992 . . . 835,000 

United States Treasury Note, 13.875%, 1989 . . . 4,000,000 

United States Treasury Note, 11.375%, 1988 . . . 5,000,000 

United States Treasury Note, 11.75%, 2001 .... 2,505,000 

United States Treasury Note, 10.75%, 2003 1,400,000 

United States Treasury Bond, 10.50%, 1987 .... 5,000,000 

United States Treasury Bond, 10.75%, 2003 1,235,000 

United States Treasury Bond, 11.625%, 2002 . . . 400,000 

United States Treasury Bond, 11.875%, 2003 . . . 730,000 

Total fixed income — bonds 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these schedules. 



Schedule 5 
1 of 5 



Approximate 
Cost Market 



\ 3,474,000 


$ 3,474,000 


2,438,000 


2,438,000 


2,660,000 


2,660,000 


8,572,000 


8,572,000 


996,346 


1,063,125 


502,034 


565,875 


304,180 


295,361 


204,162 


200,773 


277,997 


275,124 


13,850 


13,609 


1,800,000 


1,806,750 


273,738 


261,000 


371,850 


372,725 


1,213,000 


1,134,000 


446,085 


380,250 


746,148 


726,026 


402,000 


402,500 


506,296 


502,250 


1,135,925 


1,231,239 


283,411 


291,275 


188,510 


189,421 


1,014,686 


1,072,975 


4,687,500 


4,688,800 


5,421,875 


5,412,000 


3,272,156 


3,328,519 


1,839,187 


1,758,750 


5,185,156 


5,162,000 


1,558,755 


1,551,469 


507,750 


532,000 


1,043,444 


993,712 


34,196,041 


34,211,528 




(continued) 



169 



Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Financial Statements 



Schedule 5 
2 of 5 

Schedule of Investments, June 30, 1986 (continued) 



Description Par/Shares 

Fixed income — mortgages 

FHLMC, Group #140152, 7.5%, 2009 915,514 

FHLMC, Group #140639, 7.5%, 2007 1,358,193 

FHLMC, Group #160027, 8.25%, 2007 2,517,331 

FHLMC, Group #181062, 6%, 2008 2,433,079 

FHLMC, Group #183340, 8.75%, 2008 922,242 

FHLMC, Group #183370, 7.75%, 2007 1,537,130 

FHLMC, Group #185180, 8.75%, 2008 2,694,942 

FHLMC, Group #270349, 8%, 2008 1,723,503 

FHLMC, Group #272191, 8%, 2009 889,450 

FNMA, Pool #280, 8.5%, 2012 3,586,238 

FNMA, Pool #1149, 8%, 2009 3,923,359 

FNMA, Pool #19639, 8%, 2006 549,492 

FNMA, Pool #19692, 7%, 2006 2,035,385 

FNMA, Pool #20346, 8.25%, 2007 420,839 

Dedham Institution for Savings, 8.198%, 2003 ... 2,877,714 

Home Savings American, VA/FHA, 9.907%, 2003 . 1,056,225 

Security Savings, Scottsdale, 7.812%, 1999 .... 2,656,420 

Total fixed income — mortgages 

Corporate stocks — common 

AMR Corp 5,950 

Abbott Laboratories 27,600 

Advanced Micro Devices, Inc 17,425 

Aetna Life & Casualty Co 5,525 

H. F. Ahmanson & Co 72,000 

Alcan Aluminium Ltd 3,400 

Alexander & Alexander Services 12,500 

Alexander & Baldwin, Inc 5,737 

Allied-Signal, Inc 3,400 

Aluminum Co. of America 29,410 

Amax, Inc 11,900 

American General Corp 10,500 

American Home Products Corp 8,825 

American Information Technologies 18,680 

American President Co 20, 400 

Archer-Daniels-Midland Co 11,602 

Arvin 18,133 

Associated Dry Goods Corp 8,000 

Atlantic Richfield Co 850 

Avon Products, Inc 10,795 

Baltimore Gas & Electric Co 5,100 

Bank of Boston Corp 29,000 

Barnett Banks of Florida, Inc 8,500 

Bausch & Lomb, Inc 24,225 

Bayer Industries, Inc 595 

Becton Dickinson & Co 14,100 

Bell Atlantic Corp 27,610 

Black & Decker Corp. (The) 11,050 

Boeing Co 51,408 

Boise Cascade Corp 8,075 

CPC International Inc 2,550 

Calmat 15,300 

Caterpillar Tractor Co 18,785 

Champion International Corp 17,000 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these schedules. 

170 





Approximate 


Cost 


Market 


$ 830,543 


$ 830,829 


1,256,328 


1,235,955 


2,438,664 


2,363,144 


1,350,354 


2,128,945 


872,671 


877,282 


1,416,835 


1,425,689 


2,147,532 


2,580,407 


1,640,560 


1,609,321 


858,975 


833,116 


2,402,779 


3,411,409 


2,942,519 


3,668,341 


515,149 


515,149 


1,774,601 


1,829,302 


362,944 


396,641 


2,427,612 


2,658,289 


875,346 


1,044,342 


2,146,573 


2,433,945 


26,259,985 


29,842,106 


256,569 


327,994 


862,652 


1,483,500 


503,308 


348,500 


239,712 


334,953 


1,492,534 


1,989,000 


103,057 


103,700 


462,421 


492,188 


157,248 


215,156 


161,432 


152,575 


910,885 


1,121,256 


190,391 


157,675 


430,697 


442,313 


552,174 


794,250 


1,290,913 


2,552,155 


376,383 


489,600 


157,866 


211,746 


269,263 


605, 189 


312,165 


524,000 


54,468 


44,200 


223,395 


385, 921 


125,944 


165,113 


887,948 


1,174,500 


239,773 


486,625 


663,894 


944,775 


79,858 


78,094 


425,862 


777,263 


931,000 


1,918,895 


203,912 


226,525 


2,054,808 


3,238,704 


358,093 


468,350 


125,154 


186,150 


380,972 


535,500 


691,016 


934,554 


390,621 


418,625 




(continued) 



Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Financial Statements 



Schedule 5 
3 of 5 

Schedule of Investments, June 30, 1986 (continued) 



Description Par/Shares 

Corporate stocks — common (continued) 

Chevron Corp 2,635 

Chrysler Corp 11,700 

Chubb Corp. (The) 10,900 

Cigna Corp 3,910 

Citicorp 7,000 

Coca-Cola Co 36,300 

Commonwealth Edison Co 3,485 

Computer Sciences Corp 8,500 

Computervision Corp 2,210 

Control Data Corp 2,805 

Cross Co. (A.T.) 4,165 

Cypress Minerals Corp 8,500 

Dana Corp 10,500 

Data General Corp 3,400 

Deere & Co 6,205 

Delta Air Lines, Inc 9,350 

Digital Equipment Corp 30,550 

Dominion Resources, Inc 1,700 

Dow Chemical Co 21,335 

Dresser Industries, Inc 8,670 

Duke Power Co 5,100 

E. I. du Pont de Nemours 3,570 

Eastman Kodak Co 7,649 

Economics Laboratory, Inc 3,315 

Emerson Electric Co 11,660 

FPL Group Inc 1,700 

Farmers Group Inc 75,800 

Federal Express Corp 24,650 

First Interstate Bancorp 7,000 

First of America Bank Corp 9,000 

First Union Corp 22,000 

Ford Motor Corp 8,287 

General Electric Co 25,210 

General Motors Corp 8,075 

General Motors Class H 446 

General Public Utilities Corp 46,751 

General Re Corp 14,450 

Gillette Co 18,400 

Golden West Financial Corp 12,000 

Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co 4,250 

Great American First Savings Bank, San Diego . . 20,550 

Great Western Financial Corp 30,500 

Henley Group Inc 850 

Hewlett-Packard Co 18,950 

Home Federal Savings & Loan Assn. of San Diego . 10,500 

Honeywell Inc 1,275 

ITT Corp 10,000 

Intel Corp 8,500 

International Business Machines Corp 40,140 

International Paper Co 680 

Jaguar PLC Sponsored ADR 23,000 

Johnson & Johnson 59,350 

K-MartCorp 4,080 

Kroger Co. (The) 6,120 

LSI Logic Corp 4,462 

Lilly & Company (Eli) 27,625 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these schedules. 

171 





Approximate 


Cost 


Market 


101,466 


$ 101,118 


314,755 


446,063 


595,254 


752,100 


235,900 


247,796 


433,412 


418,250 


864,356 


1,520,063 


100,045 


111,956 


202,385 


334,688 


22,614 


30,664 


50,609 


63,113 


129,213 


178,574 


188,918 


192,313 


231,803 


345,188 


129,897 


117,725 


172,691 


176,843 


386,954 


388,025 


1,630,116 


2,619,663 


57,494 


71,400 


678,696 


1,224,096 


174,497 


161,479 


154,632 


230,137 


197,397 


297,203 


337,202 


448,423 


95,207 


193,513 


871,764 


1,014,420 


48,464 


53,975 


2,276,847 


3,183,600 


978,117 


1,411,213 


389,200 


437,500 


386,250 


470,250 


258,500 


629,750 


226,819 


456,848 


1,632,015 


2,042,010 


547,697 


626,822 


16,683 


18,565 


602,981 


981,771 


740,934 


903,125 


583,813 


903,900 


452,940 


508,500 


124,759 


140,250 


374,181 


477,788 


1,309,278 


1,456,375 


17,850 


16,363 


664,560 


776,950 


398,491 


393,750 


77,006 


96,581 


459,728 


543,750 


230,031 


195,500 


4,901,740 


5,880,510 


37,218 


42,755 


156,170 


196,926 


2,777,497 


4,310,294 


139,847 


232,050 


272,400 


366,435 


62,900 


44,067 


1,098,906 


2,234,172 




(continued) 



Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Financial Statements 



Schedule 5 
4 of 5 

Schedule of Investments, June 30, 1986 (continued) 



Description Par/Shares 

Corporate stocks — common (continued) 

Long Island Lighting Co 3,400 

Lucky Stores Inc 14,195 

MCAInc 10,200 

Mack Trucks Inc 11,220 

Marsh & McLennan Companies, Inc 6,000 

Maryland National Bank 15,400 

McDonald's Corp 15,225 

Mead Corporation (The) 20,825 

Medtronic, Inc 13,600 

Melville Corp 14,000 

Merck & Co., Inc 14,000 

Milipore Corp 248 

Minnesota Mining & Mfg. Co 19,850 

Mobile Corp 8,585 

Monsanto Co 6,800 

Moore Financial Group, Inc 20,500 

Philip Morris Inc 26,610 

Motorola, Inc 17,850 

NCNB Corp 8,500 

NWA, Inc 20,400 

National Australia Bank, Ltd 178,000 

Nike, Inc 12,240 

Northeast Utilities 8,670 

NorwestCorp 10,000 

Nynex Corp 27,600 

Pacific Telesis Group 3,740 

Penney Co., Inc. (J.C.) 3,230 

Pepsico, Inc 27,600 

Pfizer Inc 13,800 

Salomon Inc 15,900 

Polaroid Corp 26,350 

Procter & Gamble Co 4,845 

Public Service Enterprise Group 6,290 

Raytheon Co 6,375 

R. J. R. Nabisco 23,994 

Rohm & Haas Co 22,100 

Royal Dutch Petroleum Co . 3,570 

Safeway Stores, Inc 4,675 

San Diego Gas & Electric Co 5,185 

Schering-Plough Corp 13,609 

Schlumberger Ltd 3,060 

ShawmutCorp 9,700 

Skyline Corp 8,500 

SmithKline Beckman Corp 15,950 

Sony Corp 11,050 

Southern California Edison Co 5,100 

Southeast Banking Corp 26,900 

Southland Corp 5,015 

Southwestern Bell Corp 2,295 

Square D Co 3,400 

Tandem Computers Inc 31,450 

Tektronix, Inc 16,150 

Temple Inland, Inc 17,850 

Tenneco Inc 6,460 

Texas Instruments Inc 1,360 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these schedules. 





Approximate 


Cost 


Market 


31,652 


$ 42,500 


282,670 


422,301 


351,140 


520,200 


127,065 


136,043 


251,920 


354,000 


230,037 


754,600 


677,055 


1,113,328 


827,665 


1,067,281 


781,151 


1,037,000 


881,084 


994,000 


785,570 


1,463,000 


5,006 


8,494 


1,728,179 


2,257,937 


261,868 


271,501 


436,722 


507,450 


552,375 


563,750 


712,491 


1,985,771 


565,705 


711,769 


202,923 


459,000 


788,972 


1,020,000 


520,640 


667,500 


136,892 


238,680 


142,364 


187,489 


257,794 


376,250 


853,435 


1,863,000 


148,432 


209,907 


150,825 


275,358 


559,434 


931,500 


670,717 


986,700 


601,326 


773,137 


796,764 


1,923,550 


252,885 


388,206 


163,540 


235,089 


286,493 


405,609 


864,385 


1,271,682 


438,176 


734,825 


212,457 


287,385 


138,824 


251,281 


179,245 


187,308 


729,190 


1,148,259 


120,732 


105,187 


263,517 


491,062 


114,468 


132,812 


1,121,845 


1,598,987 


179,684 


222,381 


132,319 


160,012 


539,158 


1,190,325 


244,063 


274,571 


146,113 


251,302 


124,430 


145,350 


590,018 


974,950 


938,788 


966,981 


635,367 


910,350 


251,041 


256,785 


149,928 


162,350 




(continued) 



172 



Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Financial Statements 

Schedule 5 
5 of 5 

Schedule of Investments, June 30, 1985 (continued) 



Description 
Corporate stocks — common (continued) 

Texas Utilities Co 

The Times Mirror Co 

The Timken Co 

Travelers Corp 

UAL Inc 

Upjohn Corp 

USF&GCorp 

US Life Corp 

US West 

United States Steel Corp 

United States Tobacco Co 

United Technologies Corp 

Warner-Lambert Co 

Washington Gas Light Co 

Westpac Banking Corp 

Westinghouse Electric Corp 

Whirlpool Corp 

Xerox Corp 

Subtotal corporate stocks — common 

Corporate stocks — preferred 
United Technologies Corp 

Subtotal corporate stocks — preferred .... 

Corporate stocks — mutual fund 
Miller, Anderson & Sherrerd Value Fund .... 

Subtotal corporate stocks — mutual fund . . . 

Total corporate stocks 

Other 

Alan Dressier, Second trust, variable interest rate 
James D. & Alma C. Ebert (noninterest-bearing 
loan to president secured by real estate) .... 

Christopher Field, First trust, 8%, 2110 

Arthur Grossman, First trust, 9.0%, 2114 .... 
Steven McKnight, First trust, 10.5%, 2114 . . . 
Francois Schweizer, First trust, 10.5%, 2007 . . 

Total other 

Total investments 



The accompanying notes are an integral part of these schedules. 







Approximate 


Par/Shares 


Cost 


Market 


4,845 


$ 135,216 


$ 148,378 


1,700 


95,032 


118,575 


9,691 


461,863 


471,225 


8,500 


425,368 


425,000 


18,700 


782,609 


1,026,162 


23,375 


1,045,827 


2,211,859 


4,590 


152,168 


183,026 


4,335 


179,498 


209,164 


29,560 


877,377 


1,629,495 


17,300 


455,917 


356,812 


9,500 


396,340 


404,937 


24,945 


974,782 


1,234,777 


19,000 


831,612 


1,175,625 


5,100 


97,792 


148,537 


178,000 


505,920 


578,500 


11,500 


266,076 


616,687 


3,500 


258,923 


272,562 


22,995 


1,308,088 


1,290,594 




80,554,434 


115,424,662 


5,600 


196,630 


217,700 




196,630 


217,700 


375,494 


9,729,347 


14,069,775 




9,729,347 


14,069,775 




90,480,411 


129,712,137 



58,423 



58,423 



200,000 


200,000 


99,753 


99,753 


92,406 


92,406 


98,329 


98,329 


95,629 


95,629 



644,540 



644,540 



$160,152,977 $202,982,311 



173 



Articles of Incorporation 

Jfiflg-etg|t| Congress of % Itmteo States of America; 

^t the Second j&esaiow, 

Begun and held at the City of Washington on Monday, the seventh day of December, one 

thousand nine hundred and three. 



AN" ACT 
To incorporate the Carnegie Institution of Washington. 



Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled, That the persons following, being persons 
who are now trustees of the Carnegie Institution, namely, Alexander Agassiz, 
John S. Billings, John L. Cadwalader, Cleveland H. Dodge, William N. Frew, 
Lyman J. Gage, Daniel C. Gilman, John Hay, Henry L. Higginson, William 
Wirt Howe, Charles L. Hutchinson, Samuel P. Langley, William Lindsay, Seth 
Low, Wayne MacVeagh, Darius 0. Mills, S. Weir Mitchell, William W. Morrow, 
Ethan A. Hitchcock, Elihu Root, John C. Spooner, Andrew D. White, Charles 
D. Walcott, Carroll D. Wright, their associates and successors, duly chosen, are 
hereby incorporated and declared to be a body corporate by the name of the 
Carnegie Institution of Washington and by that name shall be known and have 
perpetual succession, with the powers, limitations, and restrictions herein contained. 

Sec. 2. That the objects of the corporation shall be to encourage, in the 
broadest and most liberal manner, investigation, research, and discovery, and 
the application of knowledge to the improvement of mankind ; and in particular — 

(a) To conduct, endow, and assist investigation in any department of 
science, literature, or art, and to this end to cooperate with governments, 
universities, colleges, technical schools, learned societies, and individuals. 

(b) To appoint committees of experts to direct special lines of research. 

(c) To publish and distribute documents. 

(d) To conduct lectures, hold meetings, and acquire and maintain a library. 

(e) To purchase such property, real or personal, and construct such building 
or buildings as may be necessary to carry on the work of the corporation. 

175 



176 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

(f) In general, to do and perform all things necessary to promote the 
objects of the institution, with full power, however, to the trustees hereinafter 

appointed and their successors from time to time to modify the conditions and 
reflations under which the work shall be carried on, so as to secure the 
application of the funds in the manner best adapted to the conditions of the time, 
provided that the objects of the corporation shall at all times be among the 
foregoing or kindred thereto. 

Sec. 3. That the direction and management of the affairs of the corporation 
and the control and disposal of its property and funds shall be vested in a board 
of trustees, twenty-two in number, to be composed of the following individuals : 
Alexander Agassiz, John S. Billings, John L. Cadwalader, Cleveland H. Dodge, 
William N. Frew, Lyman J. Gage, Daniel C. Gilman, John Hay, Henry 
L. Higginson, William Wirt Howe, Charles L. Hutchinson, Samuel P. 
Langley, William Lindsay, Seth Low, Wayne MacVeagh, Darius 0. Mills, 
S. Weir Mitchell, William W. Morrow, Ethan A. Hitchcock, Elihu Root, 
John C. Spooner, Andrew D. White, Charles D. Walcott, Carroll D. Wright, 
who shall constitute the first board of trustees. The board of trustees shall 
have power from time to time to increase its membership to not more than 
twenty-seven members. Vacancies occasioned by death, resignation, or otherwise 
shall be filled by the remaining trustees in such manner as the by-laws shall 
prescribe; and the persons so elected shall thereupon become trustees and also 
members of the said corporation. The principal place of business of the said 
corporation shall be the city of Washington, in the District of Columbia. 

Sec. 4. That such board of trustees shall be entitled to take, hold and 
administer the securities, funds, and property so transferred by said Andrew 
Carnegie to the trustees of the Carnegie Institution and such other funds or 
property as may at any time be given, devised, or bequeathed to them, or to such 
corporation, for the purposes of the trust ; and with full power from time to time to 
adopt a common seal, to appoint such officers, members of the board of trustees or 
otherwise, and such employees as may be deemed necessary in carrying on the 
business of the corporation, at such salaries or with such remuneration as they may 
deem proper; and with full power to adopt by-laws from time to time and such rules 
or regulations as may be necessary to secure the safe and convenient transaction 
of the business of the corporation ; and with full power and discretion to deal 
with and expend the income of the corporation in such manner as in their 
judgment will best promote the objects herein set forth and in general to have 
and use all powers and authority necessary to promote such objects and carry out 
the purposes of the donor. The said trustees shall have further power from time 



ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION 177 

to time to hold as investments the securities hereinabove referred to so transferred 
by Andrew Carnegie, and any property which has been or may be transferred 
to them or such corporation by Andrew Carnegie or by any other person, 
persons, or corporation, and to invest any sums or amounts from time to time 
in such securities and in such form and manner as are permitted to trustees 
or to charitable or literary corporations for investment, according to the laws 
of the States of New York, Pennsylvania, or Massachusetts, or in such securities 
as are authorized for investment by the said deed of trust so executed by Andrew 
Carnegie, or by any deed of gift or last will and testament to be hereafter made 
or executed. 

Sec. 5. That the said corporation may take and hold any additional 
donations, grants, devises, or bequests which may be made in further support of 
the purposes of the said corporation, and may include in the expenses thereof 
the personal expenses which the trustees may incur in attending meetings or 
otherwise in carrying out the business of the trust, but the services of the 
trustees as such shall be gratuitous. 

Sec. 6. That as soon as may be possible after the passage of this Act a 
meeting of the trustees hereinbefore named shall be called by Daniel C. Gilman, 
John S. Billings, Charles D. Walcott, S. Weir Mitchell, John Hay, Elihu Root, 
and Carroll D. Wright, or any four of them, at the city of Washington, in 
the District of Columbia, by notice served in person or by mail addressed to 
each trustee at his place of residence; and the said trustees, or a majority 
thereof, being assembled, shall organize and proceed to adopt by-laws, to elect 
officers and appoint committees, and generally to organize the said corporation; 
and said trustees herein named, on behalf of the corporation hereby incorporated, 
shall thereupon receive, take over, and enter into possession, custody, and 
management of all property, real or personal, of the corporation heretofore known 
as the Carnegie Institution, incorporated, as hereinbefore set forth under "An Act 
to establish a Code of Law for the District of Columbia, January fourth, nineteen 
hundred and two," and to all its rights, contracts, claims, and property of any 
kind or nature ; and the several officers of such corporation, or any other person 
having charge of any of the securities, funds, real or personal, books or property 
thereof, shall, on demand, deliver the same to the said trustees appointed by this 
Act or to the persons appointed by them to receive the same; and the trustees 
of the existing corporation and the trustees herein named shall and may take 
such other steps as shall be necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act. 

Sec. 7. That the rights of the creditors of the said existing corporation 
known as the Carnegie Institution shall not in any manner be impaired by the 



178 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



passage of this Act, or the transfer of the property hereinbefore mentioned, nor 
shall any liability or obligation for the payment of any sums due or to become 
due, or any claim or demand, in any manner or for any cause existing against 
the said existing corporation, be released or impaired ; but such corporation hereby 
incorporated is declared to succeed to the obligations and liabilities and to be held 
liable to pay and discharge all of the debts, liabilities, and contracts of the said 
corporation so existing to the same effect as if such new corporation had itself 
incurred the obligation or liability to pay such debt or damages, and no such action 
or proceeding before any court or tribunal shall be deemed to have abated or been 
discontinued by reason of the passage of this Act. 

Sec. 8. That Congress may from time to time alter, repeal, or modify this 
Act of incorporation, but no contract or individual right made or acquired shall 
thereby be divested or impaired. 

Sec. 9. That this Act shall take effect immediately. 







President of the Senate pro tempore. 



By -Laws of the Institution 

Adopted December 13, 190k. Amended December IS, 1910, December 13, 1912, December 10, 
1937, December 15, 1939, December 13, 19 kO, December 18, 191+2, December 12, 191+7, 
December 10, 195k, October 2k, 1957, May 8, 1959, May 13, 1960, May 10, 1963, May 15, 196k, 
March 6, 1967, May 3, 1968, May Ik, 1971, August 31, 1972, May 9, 197k, April 30, 1976, 
May 1, 1981, May 7, 1982, May 3, 1985, and May 9, 1986. 

ARTICLE I 
The Trustees 

1.1. The Board of Trustees shall consist of twenty-four members with power to increase 
its membership to not more than twenty-seven members. 

1.2. The Board of Trustees shall be divided into three classes each having eight or nine 
members. The terms of the Trustees shall be such that those of the members of one class 
expire at the conclusion of each annual meeting of the Board. At each annual meeting of 
the Board vacancies resulting from the expiration of Trustees' terms shall be filled by 
their re-election or election of their successors. Trustees so re-elected or elected shall 
serve for terms of three years expiring at the conclusion of the annual meeting of the 
Board in the third year after their election. A vacancy resulting from the resignation, 
death, or incapacity of a Trustee before the expiration of his* term may be filled by elec- 
tion of a successor at or between annual meetings. A person elected to succeed a Trustee 
before the expiration of his term shall serve for the remainder of that term. There shall 
be no limit on the number of terms for which a Trustee may serve, and a Trustee shall be 
eligible for immediate re-election upon expiration of his term. 

1.3. No Trustee shall receive any compensation for his services as such. 

1.4. Trustees shall be elected by vote of two-thirds of the Trustees present at a meeting 
of the Board of Trustees at which a quorum is present or without a meeting by written ac- 
tion of all of the Trustees pursuant to Section 4.6. 

1.5. If, at any time during an emergency period, there be no surviving Trustee capable 
of acting, the President, the Director of each existing Department, or such of them as 
shall then be surviving and capable of acting, shall constitute a Board of Trustees pro tern, 
with full powers under the provisions of the Articles of Incorporation and these By-Laws. 
Should neither the President nor any such Director be capable of acting, the senior sur- 
viving Staff Member of each existing Department shall be a Trustee pro tern with full 
powers of a Trustee under the Articles of Incorporation and these By-Laws. It shall be in- 
cumbent on the Trustees pro tern to reconstitute the Board with permanent members 
within a reasonable time after the emergency has passed, at which time the Trustees pro 
tern shall cease to hold office. A list of Staff Member seniority, as designated annually by 
the President, shall be kept in the Institution's records. 

1.6. A Trustee who resigns after having served at least six years and having reached 
age seventy shall be eligible for designation by the Board of Trustees as a Trustee Emeri- 
tus. A Trustee Emeritus shall be entitled to attend meetings of the Board but shall have 
no vote and shall not be counted for purposes of ascertaining the presence of a quorum. 
A Trustee Emeritus may be invited to serve in an advisory capacity on any committee of 
the Board except the Executive Committee. 



*A masculine pronoun as used in these By-Laws shall be deemed to include the corre- 
sponding female pronoun. 



179 



180 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



ARTICLE II 

Officers of the Board 

2.1. The officers of the Board shall be a Chairman of the Board, a Vice-Chairman, and 
a Secretary, who shall be elected by the Trustees, from the members of the Board, by bal- 
lot to serve for a term of three years. All vacancies shall be filled by the Board for the un- 
expired term; provided, however, that the Executive Committee shall have power to fill 
a vacancy in the office of Secretary to serve until the next meeting of the Board of 
Trustees. 

2.2. The Chairman shall preside at all meetings and shall have the usual powers of a 
presiding officer. 

2.3. The Vice-Chairman, in the absence or disability of the Chairman, shall perform the 
duties of the Chairman. 

2.4. The Secretary shall issue notices of meetings of the Board, record its transactions, 
and conduct that part of the correspondence relating to the Board and to his duties. 



ARTICLE III 

Executive Administration 

3.1. There shall be a President who shall be elected by ballot by, and hold office during 
the pleasure of, the Board, who shall be the chief executive officer of the Institution. The 
President, subject to the control of the Board and the Executive Committee, shall have 
general charge of all matters of administration and supervision of all arrangements for 
research and other work undertaken by the Institution or with its funds. He shall prepare 
and submit to the Board of Trustees and to the Executive Committee plans and sugges- 
tions for the work of the Institution, shall conduct its general correspondence and the cor- 
respondence with applicants for grants and with the special advisors of the Committee, 
and shall present his recommendations in each case to the Executive Committee for deci- 
sion. All proposals and requests for grants shall be referred to the President for consider- 
ation and report. He shall have power to remove, appoint, and, within the scope of funds 
made available by the Trustees, provide for compensation of subordinate employees and 
to fix the compensation of such employees within the limits of a maximum rate of com- 
pensation to be established from time to time by the Executive Committee. He shall be ex 
officio a member of the Executive Committee. 

3.2. The President shall be the legal custodian of the seal and of all property of the In- 
stitution whose custody is not otherwise provided for. He shall sign and execute on behalf 
of the corporation all contracts and instruments necessary in authorized administrative 
and research matters and affix the corporate seal thereto when necessary, and may dele- 
gate the performance of such acts and other administrative duties in his absence to other 
officers. He may execute all other contracts, deeds, and instruments on behalf of the cor- 
poration and affix the seal thereto when expressly authorized by the Board of Trustees 
or Executive Committee. He may, within the limits of his own authorization, delegate to 
other officers authority to act as custodian of and affix the corporate seal. He shall be re- 
sponsible for the expenditure and disbursement of all funds of the Institution in accord- 
ance with the directions of the Board and of the Executive Committee, and shall keep ac- 
curate accounts of all receipts and disbursements. He shall, with the assistance of the 
Directors of the Departments, prepare for presentation to the Trustees and for publica- 
tion an annual report on the activities of the Institution. 

3.3. The President shall attend all meetings of the Board of Trustees. 

3.4. The c orporation shall have such other officers as may be appointed by the Execu- 
tive Committee, having such duties and powers as may be specified by the Executive Com- 
mittee or by the President under authority from the Executive Committee. 



BY-LAWS 181 



3.5. The President shall retire from office at the end of the fiscal year in which he be- 
comes sixty-five years of age. 



ARTICLE IV 

Meetings and Voting 

4.1. The annual meeting of the Board of Trustees shall be held in the City of Washing- 
ton, in the District of Columbia, in May of each year on a date fixed by the Executive Com- 
mittee, or at such other time or such other place as may be designated by the Executive 
Committee, or if not so designated prior to May 1 of such year, by the Chairman of the 
Board of Trustees, or if he is absent or is unable or refuses to act, by any Trustee with the 
written consent of the majority of the Trustees then holding office. 

4.2. Special meetings of the Board of Trustees may be called, and the time and place of 
meeting designated, by the Chairman, or by the Executive Committee, or by any Trustee 
with the written consent of the majority of the Trustees then holding office. Upon the 
written request of seven members of the Board, the Chairman shall call a special meeting. 

4.3. Notices of meetings shall be given ten days prior to the date thereof. Notice may 
be given to any Trustee personally, or by mail or by telegram sent to the usual address of 
such Trustee. Notices of adjourned meetings need not be given except when the adjourn- 
ment is for ten days or more. 

4.4. The presence of a majority of the Trustees holding office shall constitute a quorum 
for the transaction of business at any meeting. An act of the majority of the Trustees 
present at a meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of the Board except as 
otherwise provided in these By-Laws. If, at a duly called meeting, less than a quorum is 
present, a majority of those present may adjourn the meeting from time to time until a 
quorum is present. Trustees present at a duly called or held meeting at which a quorum 
is present may continue to do business until adjournment notwithstanding the withdraw- 
al of enough Trustees to leave less than a quorum. 

4.5. The transactions of any meeting, however called and noticed, shall be as valid as 
though carried out at a meeting duly held after regular call and notice, if a quorum is pres- 
ent and if, either before or after the meeting, each of the Trustees not present in person 
signs a written waiver of notice, or consent to the holding of such meeting, or approval of 
the minutes thereof. All such waivers, consents, or approvals shall be filed with the corpo- 
rate records or made a part of the minutes of the meeting. 

4.6. Any action which, under law or these By-Laws, is authorized to be taken at a meet- 
ing of the Board of Trustees or any of the Standing Committees may be taken without a 
meeting if authorized in a document or documents in writing signed by all the Trustees, 
or all the members of the Committee, as the case may be, then holding office and filed 
with the Secretary. 

4.7. During an emergency period the term "Trustees holding office" shall, for purposes 
of this Article, mean the surviving members of the Board who have not been rendered in- 
capable of acting for any reason including difficulty of transportation to a place of meet- 
ing or of communication with other surviving members of the Board. 



ARTICLE V 

Committees 

5.1. There shall be the following Standing Committees, viz. an Executive Committee, 
a Finance Committee, an Auditing Committee, a Nominating Committee, and an Employ- 
ee Benefits Committee. 

5.2. All vacancies in the Standing Committees shall be filled by the Board of Trustees 
at the next annual meeting of the Board and may be filled at a special meeting of the 



182 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



Board. A vacancy in the Executive Committee and, upon request of the remaining mem- 
bers of any other Standing Committee, a vacancy in such other Committee may be filled 
by the Executive Committee by temporary appointment to serve until the next meeting 
of the Board. 

5.3. The terms of all officers and of all members of Committees, as provided for herein, 
shall continue until their successors are elected or appointed. The term of any member of 
a Committee shall terminate upon termination of his service as a Trustee. 

Executive Committee 

5.4. The Executive Committee shall consist of the Chairman, Vice-Chairman, and Sec- 
retary of the Board of Trustees, the President of the Institution ex officio, and, in addi- 
tion, not less than five or more than eight Trustees to be elected by the Board by ballot 
for a term of three years, who shall be eligible for re-election. Any member elected to fill 
a vacancy shall serve for the remainder of his predecessor's term. The presence of four 
members of the Committee shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at 
any meeting. 

5.5. The Executive Committee shall, when the Board is not in session and has not given 
specific directions, have general control of the administration of the affairs of the corpo- 
ration and general supervision of all arrangements for administration, research, and 
other matters undertaken or promoted by the Institution. It shall also submit to the 
Board of Trustees a printed or typewritten report of each of its meetings, and at the annu- 
al meeting shall submit to the Board a report for publication. 

5.6. The Executive Committee shall have power to authorize the purchase, sale, ex- 
change, or transfer of real estate. 



Finance Committee 

5.7. The Finance Committee shall consist of not less than five and not more than six 
members to be elected by the Board of Trustees by ballot for a term of three years, who 
shall be eligible for re-election. The presence of three members of the Committee shall 
constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at any meeting. 

5.8. The Finance Committee shall have custody of the securities of the Institution and 
general charge of its investments and invested funds and shall care for and dispose of the 
same subject to the directions of the Board of Trustees. It shall have power to authorize 
the purchase, sale, exchange, or transfer of securities and to delegate this power. For any 
retirement or other benefit plan for the staff members and employees of the Institution, 
it shall be responsible for supervision of matters relating to investments, appointment or 
removal of any investment manager or advisor, reviewing the financial status and ar- 
rangements, and appointment or removal of any plan trustee or insurance carrier. It shall 
consider and recommend to the Board from time to time such measures as in its opinion 
will promote the financial interests of the Institution and improve the management of in- 
vestments under any retirement or other benefit plan. The Committee shall make a re- 
port at the annual meeting of the Board. 



Auditing Committee 

5.9. The Auditing Committee shall consist of three members to be elected by the Board 
of Trustees by ballot for a term of three years. 

5.10. Before each annual meeting of the Board of Trustees, the Auditing Committee 
shall cause the accounts of the Institution for the preceding fiscal year to be audited by 
public accountants. The accountants shall report to the Committee, and the Committee 



BY-LAWS 183 



shall present said report at the ensuing annual meeting of the Board with such recom- 
mendations as the Committee may deem appropriate. 

Nominating Committee 

5.11. The Nominating Committee shall consist of the Chairman of the Board of Trus- 
tees ex officio and, in addition, three Trustees to be elected by the Board by ballot for a 
term of three years, who shall not be eligible for re-election until after the lapse of one 
year. Any member elected to fill a vacancy shall serve for the remainder of his 
predecessor's term, provided that of the Nominating Committee first elected after adop- 
tion of this By-Law one member shall serve for one year, one member shall serve for two 
years, and one member shall serve for three years, the Committee to determine the re- 
spective terms by lot. 

5.12. Sixty days prior to an annual meeting of the Board the Nominating Committee 
shall notify the Trustees by mail of the vacancies to be filled in membership of the Board. 
Each Trustee may submit nominations for such vacancies. Nominations so submitted 
shall be considered by the Nominating Committee, and ten days prior to the annual meet- 
ing the Nominating Committee shall submit to members of the Board by mail a list of the 
persons so nominated, with its recommendations for filling existing vacancies on the 
Board and its Standing Committees. No other nominations shall be received by the Board 
at the annual meeting except with the unanimous consent of the Trustees present. 

Employee Benefits Committee 

5.13. The Employee Benefits Committee shall consist of not less than three and not 
more than four members to be elected by the Board of Trustees by ballot for a term of 
three years, who shall be eligible for re-election, and the Chairman of the Finance Com- 
mittee ex officio. Any member elected to fill a vacancy shall serve for the remainder of 
his predecessor's term. 

5.14. The Employee Benefits Committee shall, subject to the directions of the Board of 
Trustees, be responsible for supervision of the activities of the administrator or adminis- 
trators of any retirement or other benefit plan for staff members and employees of the 
Institution, except that any matter relating to investments or to the appointment or re- 
moval of any trustee or insurance carrier under any such plan shall be the responsibility 
of the Finance Committee. It shall receive reports from the administrator or administra- 
tors of the employee benefit plans with respect to administration, benefit structure, oper- 
ation, and funding. It shall consider and recommend to the Board from time to time such 
measures as in its opinion will improve such plans and the administration thereof. The 
Committee shall submit a report to the Board at the annual meeting of the Board. 



ARTICLE VI 

Financial Administration 

6.1. No expenditure shall be authorized or made except in pursuance of a previous ap- 
propriation by the Board of Trustees, or as provided in Section 5.8 of these By-Laws. 

6.2. The fiscal year of the Institution shall commence on the first day of July in each 
year. 

6.3. The Executive Committee shall submit to the annual meeting of the Board a full 
statement of the finances and work of the Institution for the preceding fiscal year and a 
detailed estimate of the expenditures of the succeeding fiscal year. 

6.4. The Board of Trustees, at the annual meeting in each year, shall make general ap- 
propriations for the ensuing fiscal year; but nothing contained herein shall prevent the 
Board of Trustees from making special appropriations at any meeting. 



184 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



6.5. The Executive Committee shall have general charge and control of all appropria- 
tions made by the Board. Following the annual meeting, the Executive Committee may al- 
locate these appropriations for the succeeding fiscal year. The Committee shall have full 
authority to reallocate available funds, as needed, and to transfer balances. 

6.6. The securities of the Institution and evidences of property, and funds invested and 
to be invested, shall be deposited in such safe depository or in the custody of such trust 
company and under such safeguards as the Finance Committee shall designate, subject 
to directions of the Board of Trustees. Income of the Institution available for expenditure 
shall be deposited in such banks or depositories as may from time to time be designated 
by the Executive Committee. 

6.7. Any trust company entrusted with the custody of securities by the Finance Com- 
mittee may, by resolution of the Board of Trustees, be made Fiscal Agent of the Institu- 
tion, upon an agreed compensation, for the transaction of the business coming within the 
authority of the Finance Committee. 

6.8. The property of the Institution is irrevocably dedicated to charitable purposes, and 
in the event of dissolution its property shall be used for and distributed to those charita- 
ble purposes as are specified by the Congress of the United States in the Articles of Incor- 
poration, Public Law No. 260, approved April 28, 1904, as the same may be amended from 
time to time. 



ARTICLE VII 

Amendment of By-Laws 

7.1. These By-Laws may be amended at any annual or special meeting of the Board of 
Trustees by a two-thirds vote of the members present, provided written notice of the pro- 
posed amendment shall have been served personally upon, or mailed to the usual address 
of, each member of the Board twenty days prior to the meeting. 



Index 



Abelson, Philip H., v, 153, 155 
Aldrich, L. Thomas, 147 
Anderson, Lamont K., 114, 146 

publications of, 121 
Andrews, Matthew, 145 
Angel, J. Roger, 5 
Arp, HaltonC, 111-112, 149 

publications of, 131 
Au, Andrew Y. , 148 

publications of, 135 
Austin, J. Paul, 110 

Babcock, Horace W. , 149 
Ball, J. Timothy, 18, 146 

publications of, 121 
Banks, Jo Ann, 145 
Barnes, H. L. 

publications of, 135 
Barreiro, Barbara, 94, 151 

publications of, 126 
Baskin, Tobias I., 147 

publications of, 121 
Batten, Charlie, 112, 148 
Beachy, Philip, 145 
Bechtold, Jill, 149 
Bell, Peter M., 73-75, 148 

publications of, 135-136 
Bennett, Karen, 145 
Berg, Celeste, 29, 145 
Berry, Joseph A., 12-14, 15, 16-18, 108, 
146 

publications of, 121 
Beryllium-10 studies, 81-85 
Bialek-Bylka, Grazyna, 21, 146 

publications of, 121 
Biogeochemistry 

of paleodiets, 102-103 

of the Delaware Estuary, 103-104 

of sedimentary organic matter, 104-106 
Bjorkman, Olle, 18-19, 21, 113, 146 

publications of, 121 
Block, Maryse A. , 145 
Boctor, NabilZ., 151 

publications of, 136 
Bootes void, 53-54 
Borne, Kirk, 108, 147 



Boroson, Todd A. 

publications of, 132 
Bose, Salil, 20, 151 

publications of, 122 
Boss, Alan P., 63-65, 72, 108, 147 

publications of, 126 
Bowers, Ray, vii, 150 
Boyd, Francis R., Jr., 148 

publications of, 136 
Boyden, John E., 149 

publications of, 132 
Branscomb, Lewis M., v, 155 
Briggs, Winslow R., vii, 40, 41-42, 109, 
146 

publications of, 122 
Britten, Roy J., vii, 29, 31-32, 113, 151 

publications of, 125-126 
Brown, Donald D., vii, 12, 32, 37-38, 109, 
113, 145, 159 

publications of, 119 
Brown dwarfs, 64-65 
Brown, Jeanette, 21, 146 

publications of, 122 
Brown, Louis, 82-85, 147 

publications of, 126 
Bruning, David H. 

publications of, 132 
Burstein, David, 56 

publications of, 126 

Caenorhabditis elegans, 38-39 

Caldwell, John, 149 

Campbell, Belva G., 45, 61-62, 68, 149 

publications of, 132 
Canapp, Cady, vii, 150 
Carlson, Richard W., 88-89, 108, 147 

publications of, 127 
Carnegie, Andrew, 3, 108 
Caron, Lise, 146 
Cepheid studies, 58, 59-60 
Chamberlain, C. Page, 93-94, 95, 148 

publications of, 136 
Chan, W. Winston, 79-80, 147 

publications of, 127 
Chapman, Gary A. 

publications, 132 



185 



186 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



Chayes, Felix, 111, 148 

publications of, 136-137 
Chazdon, Robin, 15-16, 146 

publications of, 122 
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, 22 
Chloroplast DNA 

transcription in pea, 42 
Chromosomes 

electrophoretic manipulation of, 25-27 

lampbrush, 28 

protein-gene conformations, 32-33, 37-38 

telomeres of, 29 
Ciardullo, Robin, 147 

publications of, 127 
Cifuentes, Ines, 80, 147 
Cifuentes, Luis A., 103-104, 148, 151 

publications of, 137 
Clarke, Timothy J., 101, 147 

publications of, 127 
Clusters of galaxies 

distributions in three dimensions, 50-51 

effects of crowding in, 52-53 

large-scale motions in, 56-57 
Coleman, William T., Jr., v, 153, 155 
Conley, Pamela B., 146 

publications of, 122 
Cooley, Lynn, 37, 107, 145 
Corrado, Julia C. 

publications of, 137 

Da Costa, Gary S. 

publications of, 132 
Darby, Martyn, 145 

David, Edward E., Jr., v, 109, 114, 155 
Davis, J. Peter, 147 

publications of, 127 
deHostos, Eugenio L., 22, 147 
Delaware Estuary, 103-104 
Demmig, Barbara, 19, 21, 146 

publications of, 122 
Diamond-anvil pressure cell 

improvements in, 73 

studies with, 73-76 
Diebold, John, v, 109, 155, 159 
DiMario, Patrick, 28, 145 
Dingwell, Donald B., 95, 148 

publications of, 137 
Distance scales, cosmological 

Cepheid studies, 58, 59-60 

supernovae, use of, 59 

velocity-distance relation, 58 
Dobres, Michael S., 41, 146 

publications of, 122 
Dole Effect, 13-14 
Dressier, Alan, 47, 56-57, 60, 108, 149 

publications of, 132 
Drosophila 

chorion gene system in, 34-37 

isolating genes of, 37 

mini-chromosome of, 27 
Dudas, Francis O., 147 

publications of, 127 
Duke, Edward F. 

publications of, 137 



Duncan, Douglas K., 149 
publications of, 132-133 

Earthquakes 

focal mechanisms of, 78 

multipathing of seismic signals, 79 

precursors to, 80 

slow, 80-81 
Earth sciences, reorganization of, 4, 5, 156 
Ebert, James D., v, vii, 108, 150, 155, 159 

President's Commentary, 1-6 

publications of, 142 
Echeverria, Lina M. 

publications of, 127 
Edelman, Gerald M., v, 155 
Eight-meter telescope, planned, 4-5, 70-71 
Elliott, Robert C, 147 

publications of, 122 
Elliptical galaxies 

ages of, radio sources, 49 

determining distances of, 56 

ionized gas in, 52 

mass of NGC 720 system, 60 

morphology of, radio sources, 48 

supernovae in, 59 
Embryos, human collection, 44 
Engel, Michael H. 

publications of, 137 
Epstein, Lloyd, 28, 145 
Esperanca, Sonia, 88, 147 

publications of, 127 
Estep, Marilyn, see Fogel 

Faber, Sandra M., v, 56, 114, 155 
Fambrough, Douglas M., 145 
Fedoroff, Nina V., 29-31, 145 

publications of, 119 
Ferry, John M. 

publications of, 137 
Field, Christopher B., 12, 15-16, 146 

publications of, 123 
Finger, Larry W. , 148 

publications of, 137 
Finnerty, Anthony A., 152 

publications of, 138 
Fogel, Marilyn L., 12-14, 102-104, 148, 151 

publications of, 138 
Ford, W. Kent Jr., 51-52, 66-68, 147, 149 

publications of, 127 
Fork, David C, 18, 20, 146 

publications of, 123 
Frantz, John D., 148 

publications of, 138 
Freas, SuzanM., 123, 147 
Freedman, Wendy L., 59-60, 149 

publications of, 133 
Fremyella diplosiphon, 43-44 
French, C. Stacy, 146 

Gall, Joseph G., 25, 27-29, 108, 145 

publications of, 119 
Geminiviruses, 33-34 
Gilmore, Gerard, 65, 152 
Giraud, Edmond H. 



INDEX 



187 



publications of, 133 
Gize, Andrew P., 148 

publications of, 138 
Goelet, Robert G., v, 153, 155 
Golden, William T., v, 115, 155, 159 
Golgi complex, 24-25 
Graham, John, 60, 62-63, 107, 108, 147, 149 

publications of, 127 
Graves, Barbara, 33, 145 
Green, Laura S., 22, 147 
Greenewalt, Crawford H., v, 159 
Greenough, William C, v, 153, 155, 159 
Gregg, Michael D., 149 

publications of, 133 
Griffin, Roger 

publications of, 133 
Grill, Richard, 112, 146 
Grossman, Arthur R., 22, 40, 42-44, 146 

publications of, 123 
Gurdon, John, 109 
Gurney, John J. 

publications of, 138 
Guy, Robert D., 12-14, 146 

Haraburda, Joseph M.S., vii, 150 
Hare, P. Edgar, 102-103, 148 

publications of, 138 
Hart, Stanley M. 

publications of, 127 
Hart, William K., 151 

publications of, 128 
Haskins, Caryl P., v, 153, 155, 159 
Hazen, Robert M., 113, 148 

publications of, 138 
Heckert, Richard E., v, 5, 112, 115, 155, 

159 
Hedges, John I. 

publications of, 139 
Hemley, Russell J., 75, 94, 148 

publications of, 139 
Herbert, Steven, 20 
Herbig-Haro objects, 62-63 
Herpes simplex virus, 33 
Hewlett, William R., v, 5, 109, 110, 155, 

156 159 
Hiesey, William M., 146, 159 
Hiltner, W. Albert, 70 
Hoering, Thomas C, 12-14, 75, 94, 102- 
103, 104-106, 148 

publications of, 139 
Hofmeister, Anne M., 75, 148 

publications of, 139 
Hornblower, Marshall, vii, 155 
Horwitz, Benjamin A., 41, 146 
Hoshina, Satoshi 

publications of, 123 
Hubble constant, 49, 59 
Hubble Space Telescope, 4, 5 
Hughes, John M. 

publications of, 139 
Hunter, Deidre, 52-53, 108, 147, 152 

publications of, 128-129 
Hydra, 29 
Hydra-Centaurus Supercluster, 56 



Hydrocarbons, studies of, 104-106 

lino, Moritoshi 

publications of, 123 
Inverted telescope, 100-102 
Irvine, T. Neil, 90-93, 148 

publications of, 139 
Isotope studies 

10 Be, 81-85 

in crust and mantle rods, 85-89 

in metamorphic processes, 94 

in organic matter, 12-14, 102-104 
I to, Emi 

publications of, 129 

James, David E., 101, 102, 147 

publications of, 129 
Jedrzejewski, Robert I., 149 
Jephcoat, Andrew P., 74, 148 

publications of, 139 
Jewett, George F., Jr., v, 153, 155, 159 
Johns, Mitrick, 145 

Johnson, Antonia Ax:son, v, 109, 153, 155 
Johnson, Peter, 33, 145 

Kaapvaal craton, 88-89 
Karin, Norman, 145 
Kaufman, Lon S., 41, 146 

publications of, 124 
Kelley, Richard, 36, 145 
Kelly, Samuel, 145 
Kenyon, Patricia M., 147 

publications of, 129 
Kieschnick, William F., v, 109, 155 
Kinetic modeling, geological processes, 94- 

95 
Koo, David, 47-48, 49, 159 

publications of, 129 
Kristian, Jerome, 149 

publications of, 133 
Krzeminski, Wojciech, 149 
Kullerud, Gunnar 

publications of, 139 
Kunkel, William E., 149 

publications of, 133 
Kushiro, Ikuo, 148 

publications of, 140 
Kutschera, Ulrich, 146 

Lampbrush chromosomes, 27-29 
Landschulz, William, 33, 146 
Laubach, Gerald D., v, 155 
Lawrence, John C, vii, 150, 155 
Layered igneous intrusions, 90-93 
Lazarowitz, Sondra G., 32, 33-34, 108, 145 

publications of, 119-120 
Lazdins, Inara, 34, 146 
Lee, Typhoon 

publications of, 129 
Lemaux, Peggy G., 146 

publications of, 124 
Levitt, Jacob, 151 

publications of, 124 
Leys, Gene, 145 



188 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



L'Hernault, Steven, 39-40, 145 
Light, influence on plants 

roles in development, 40-44 

quantifying in tropical environments, 15 

high levels, 18-20 
Linde, AlanT., 114, 147 

publications of, 129 
Lipid studies, 22-24 
Local Group, 56, 58-59, 69 
Lomax, Terri L., 146 

publications of, 124 
Losa, Riccardo, 145 
Lovett, Robert A., 110 
Luth, Robert W., 148 

publications of, 140 

Macko, Stephen A. 

publications of, 140 
Macomber, John D., v, 153, 155, 159 
Mac Vicar, Margaret L.A., vii, 107, 113, 
150, 155 

publications of, 142 
Magma 

formation of, 90-93 

solubility mechanisms of, 95-99 

sources of, 81-85 
Mangroves, 21 
Mao, Ho-kwang, 73-75, 148 

publications of, 140 
Mariathasan, Joseph W.E. 

publications of, 140 
Martin, Ona, 23, 146 
Martin, William McChesney, Jr., v, 155 
McClintock, Barbara, vii, 29, 114, 151 
McKnight, Steven L., 12, 25, 32-33, 145 

publications of, 120 
Membranes, biological 

lipid traffic through, 22-24 

protein traffic through, 24-25 
Mertzman, Stanley A., 151 

publications of, 129 
Metamorphism 

cooling rates of, 95 

heat transfer in, 93-94 
Meyer, Robert P., 102, 147 
Milky Way Galaxy 

halo-mapping in, 65-66 

peculiar velocity of, 56 

ratio of carbon and M stars in, 69 

thick-disk stars of, 65 
Mineral physics 

and metamorphism, 93-94 

compressibility of materials, 74-75 

high-pressure technology, 73-74 

modeling of kinetic properties, 94-95 

vibrational properties of materials, 75 
Morris, Julie, 82-85, 107, 108, 147 

publications of, 129 
Mount Wilson Observatory, 65, 71 
Muncill, Gregory E., 95, 148 

publications of, 140 
Muskox Intrusion, 90-93 
Mysen, Bj0rn, 83, 96-99, 107, 148 

publications of, 140-141 



Nobs, Malcolm A., 146, 159 
Norton, Garrison, v, 155 

O'Rahilly, Ronan, 44, 145 
Orr- Weaver, Terry, 145 

Pagano, Richard E., 12, 22-24, 145 

publications of, 120 
Parks, Suki, 107, 146 
Parratt, Patricia, vii, 150 
Pennoyer, Robert M., v, 155 
Perkins, Richard S., v, 155, 159 
Persson, S. Eric, 45, 61-62, 68, 70, 149 

publications of, 133-134 
Photoinhibition 

fluorescence monitoring of, 20 

recovery from, 19 
Photorespiration, 13-14 
Photosynthesis 

activation of, 40-41 

effect on biosphere, 12-14 

inhibition of, 18-20 

mathematical modeling of, 15, 16-18 

regulation of, 17, 41 

structure of photosystems of, 21 

structure of pigment-protein complexes 
of, 21 
Phycobilisomes, 42-44 
Phytochrome 

and gravity, 41-42 

role in greening, 40-41 
Pinder, Allison, 34, 146 
Piper species, 15 
Polans, Neil O. 

publications of, 124 
Preston, George W., vii, 5, 71, 112, 149 
Prewitt, Charles T., vii, 5, 109, 112 
Proskouriakoff, Tatiana, 110 
Pulsed electrophoresis, 25-27 

Qi, Gui-Zhong, 147 
Quails, William, 112, 150 

Radio astronomy, 46-49 
Ribulose bisphosphate, 17 
Rich, Michael, 147, 152 
Richet, Pascal 

publications of, 141 
Roberts, Linda, 147 

publications of, 124 
Roedder, Edwin, 114 
Roeder, Robert, 114 
Roth, Mark, 28, 145 
Rubin, Gerald M., 34, 114, 145 
Rubin, Vera C, 51-53, 66-68, 107-108, 
147, 149 

publications of, 129 
Rumble, Douglas, III, 93-94, 108, 148 

publications of, 141 

Sacks, I. Selwyn, 77-79, 147 

publications of, 130 
Sagar, Anurag O., 146 
Sana, Abhijit, 149 



INDEX 



189 



Sandage, Allan, 58-59, 65-66, 69-70, 114, 
149 

publications of, 134 
Sato, Hiroki, 147, 152 

publications of, 130 
Scarfe, Christopher 

publications of, 141 
Schechter, Paul L., 53, 60, 108, 149 

publications of, 134 
Scnerer, Margaret Hale, 110, 160 
Scherer, Paul, 110, 160 
Schneider, John, 78-79, 147 
Schoch, Siegrid, 151 

publications of, 124 
Scnulze, Daniel J. 

publications of, 141 
Schwartz, David, 25-27, 145 

publications of, 120 
Schweizer, Francois, 147, 149 

publications of, 130 
Seamans, Robert C, Jr., v, 5, 114, 153, 

155, 156, 159 
Searle, Leonard, 68-69, 149 
Seifert, Friedrich A., 114 
Sen, Arindam, 151, 160 

publications of, 124 
Seyfert galaxies, 62 
Seyfried, Max, 19, 146 
Sharma, Shiv K. 

publications of, 141 
Sharpe, Martin R., 152 

publications of, 141 
Shectman, Stephen A., 50-51, 53, 149 
Shinkle, James R., 147 

publications of, 124 
Shirey, Steven B., 86-87, 108, 147 

publications of, 130 
Silicates, melt structure, 95-99 
Silsbee, Greg, vii, 150 
Silver, Paul, 79-81, 107, 147 

publications of, 130 
Simoni V., Diglio A., 147 
Sleight, Richard, 145 
Smith, A. Ledyard, 110, 160 
Smith, Douglas 

publications of, 141 
Snider, Martin, 12, 22, 24-25, 113, 145 

publications of, 120 
Snoke, J. Arthur 

publications of, 130 
Solar system, formation of, 72-73 
Spear, Frank S. 

publications of, 141 
Spiral galaxies 

in clusters, 51-53 

M33, center of, 66-67 

M31, interstellar gas in, 68-69 
Spradling, Allan C, 27, 32, 34-37, 107, 145 

publications of, 120 
Sprague, E. Kent 

publications of, 152 
Stafford, Thomas W., Jr., 148 

publications of, 141 
Stanton, Frank, v, 115 



Star formation 

in radio galaxies, 47 

of Herbig-Haro objects, 62-63 

of YSO's, 61-62 

rates of, 69-70 

theoretical modeling of, 63-65 
Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y., 149 

publications of, 134 
Stern, David B., 147 

publications of, 124 
Stern, Robert J. 

publications of, 130 
Stewart, Glen R., 72, 151 
Stress, plant response to 

high light, 18-20 

high salt, 21 

low sulfur, 21-22 
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, 31 
Stryker, Linda L., 147 

publications of, 131 
Subduction processes, 76-85 

at great depth, 79-80 

beneath Peru, 77-79, 80 

in volcanic arcs, 81-85 

slow earthquakes, 80-81 
Suntzeff, Nicholas B., 149 

publications of, 135 
Supernovae 

as distance indicators, 59 
Surosky, Richard, 145 
Synchrotron studies, 75-76 
Synechococcus, 22 

Takeyasu, Kunio, 145 
Tamkun, Michael, 145 
Tammann, Gustav A., 59, 152 
Taylor, Loverine P., 146 
Taylor, William, 145 
Tera, Fouad, 82-85, 147 

publications of, 131 
Tetrahymena, 29 
Thompson, Ian B., 68-69, 149 

publications of, 135 
Thompson, William F., 40-42, 146 

publications of, 124-125 
Townes, Charles H., v, 114, 153, 155, 160 
Transcriptional gene complexes, 32-33, 37- 

38 
Transposable genetic elements 

molecular analysis of (maize), 29-31 

role in evolution, 31 
Triezenberg, Steven, 33, 145 
Tufaro, Frank, 25, 145 

Ulrich, Roger K., 71 

Urban, Thomas N., v, 112, 155 

Uster, Paul, 145 

Valette-Silver, J. Nathalie, 147 

publications of, 131 
Van Allen, James, 114 
Van Valkenburg, Alvin, 114 
Vasquez, Susan Y., vii, 150, 155 
Virgo, David, 96-99, 148 



190 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



publications of, 141-142 
Virgo Supercluster, 56, 69 
Viruses 

interactions with animal cell genetic 
apparatus, 32-33 

molecular studies of gemini viruses, 33-34 
Vrana, Kent, 37, 145 

Ward, Samuel, 11, 32, 38-40, 145 

publications of, 120 
Warrior, Rahul, 29, 146 
Watson, John C, 146 

publications of, 125 
Weinberg, Sidney J., Jr., v, 153, 155, 160 
Weinheimer, Steven, 33, 146 
Weis, Engelbert, 18, 146 
Wessman, Gunnar, v, 155 
Wetherill, George W., vii, 5, 72-73, 108, 
113, 115, 147, 152 

publications of, 131 
Weymann, Ray J., vii, 5, 46, 112 
White, William M. 

publications of, 131 



Whitmore, Bradley C. 

publications of, 131 
Wilson, Allan H., 88-89, 151 

publications of, 131 
Wilson, OlinC., 113, 149 
Windhorst, Rogier A., 46-49, 149 

publications of, 135 
Wolffe, Alan, 38, 145 
Wolitsky, Barry, 145 
Woodbury, Neal, 42, 114, 146 
Woodrow, Ian, 17-18, 146 

publications of, 125 
Wyse, Rosemary, 65, 152 

Xenopus 5S RNA genes, 37-38 
Xu, Ji-an, 73, 74-75, 148 
publications of, 142 

Yamagishi, Akihiko, 21, 146 
Yoder, Hatten S., Jr., vii, 107, 110-111, 
148 
publications of, 142 
Young Stellar Objects, 61-62